Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2c. per-, perə-   'to sell, impart'

Semantic Field(s): to Sell


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: rann n part RPN
Old English: part n.masc part ASD
Middle English: appreisen, apraysen vb to appraise CDC/W7
aprisen, apraysen vb.trans to apprize CDC
comparen vb to compare W7
interpreten vb to interpret W7
paire n pair W7
parcel n parcel W7
part n part W7
parten vb to part W7
particle n particle W7
partie n part, party W7
peer n peer W7
portion n portion W7
praisen vb to praise W7
precious adj precious W7
pris n prize, price W7
proporcion n proportion W7
English: appraise vb.trans to set value on, estimate amount of AHD/W7
appreciate vb to evaluate worth/quality/significance of AHD/W7
apprize vb to value, appreciate W7
bipartite adj being in two parts AHD/W7
compare vb to liken, represent as similar AHD/W7
compart vb.trans to mark/divide out into parts AHD/W7
depreciate vb to lower price/estimated value of AHD/W7
imparity n disparity, inequality AHD/W7
impart vb.trans to transmit, give/grant from one's store/abundance AHD/W7
interpret vb to elucidate, explain meaning of AHD/W7
nonpareil adj having no equal AHD/W7
nonpareil n paragon, individual of unequalled excellence AHD/W7
pair n two things (designed) for dual use AHD/W7
par n comparative values of currencies AHD/W7
parcel n portion, fragment AHD/W7
parcener n coparcener: joint heir AHD/W7
pari-mutuel n race betting where winners divide total amount bet AHD
parse vb to describe sentence grammatically AHD
part n portion resulting from division AHD/W7
part vb to separate from, take leave of AHD/W7
particle n clause/article of document/composition AHD/W7
partisan n supporter, one who takes part of another AHD/W7
partisan n weapon with long shaft/broad blade AHD/W7
partita n repetition with modification AHD/W7
party n group/person taking one side of question/dispute/contest AHD/W7
peer n equal, one with equal standing AHD/W7
pornography n depiction of erotic behavior AHD/W7
portion n individual's part/share of something AHD/W7
praise vb to commend, express favorable judgment of AHD/W7
Precious prop.n the One Ring in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
precious adj of high price/great value AHD/W7
price n worth, value AHD/W7
proportion n ratio, relation of part to part/whole w.r.t. degree/quantity/magnitude AHD/W7
repartee n quick/witty reply AHD/W7
British English: apprise vb to apprize LRC
West Germanic  
German: Preis n.masc price LRC
Latin: bipartio, bipartīre vb to divide in two W7
compar adj like W7
comparo, comparāre vb to couple, compare W7
impār adj odd, uneven, unequal W7
impartio, impartire vb to share W7
interpres, interpretis n.masc/fem agent, interpreter, negotiator W7
interpretor, interpretari vb.dep to be agent/interpreter/negotiator W7
pār adj even, equal RPN
paria equal things W7
parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum vb to prepare, obtain LRC
pars, partis n.fem part, share, portion RPN
particula n.fem.dim small part W7
partio, partīre vb to divide W7
partior, partiri vb.dep to share W7
portiō, portiōnis n.fem part, portion, division RPN
pretiosus adj precious W7
pretium n.neut price, money, value W7
prōportiō, prōportiōnis n.fem analogy W7
Vulgar Latin: pariculus adj equal W7
particella n.fem small part W7
Late Latin: appretiare vb.trans to appraise, purchase CDC
appretiatus vb.ptc appraised W7
appretio, appretiāre vb to fix a price W7
compartior, compartiri vb.dep to share out W7
depretiatus vb.ptc depreciated W7
depretio, depretiāre vb to depreciate W7
imparitas n.fem imparity W7
pretio, pretiāre vb to prize, value, esteem W7
Portuguese: apreçar vb to appraise CDC
Spanish: apreciar vb to appraise CDC
Old French: apretier, aprisier vb.trans to price, appraise CDC
apris(i)er, apretier vb.trans to apprize CDC
paire n.fem pair W7
parçon n.fem portion W7
parçonier adj.n.masc comrade, associate W7
partie n.fem division W7
partir vb to depart, divide W7
portion n.fem portion W7
precios adj precious W7
pris n.masc price W7
Anglo-French: parcener vb to partition W7
Middle French: aprisier vb to apprize W7
comparer vb to compare W7
impart n.masc lot given W7
impartir vb to impart W7
interpreter vb to interpret W7
nonpareil adj unequal W7
parcel n.masc small part W7
pareil adj equal W7
partir vb to divide W7
partisan n.masc partisan, fan W7
partisane n.fem female partisan W7
preisier vb to prize, praise W7
proportion n.fem proportion W7
repartir vb to go again W7
French: apprécier vb to appraise CDC
nonpareil adj sensational, unequalled W7
répartie n.fem quick/witty answer W7
répartir vb to retort W7
Old Occitan: apreciar vb to appraise CDC
Old Italian: parte n.fem part, party W7
partigiana n.fem weapon of 16th-17th centuries W7
partigiano n.masc weapon of 16th-17th centuries W7
Italian: appregiare, apprezare vb to appraise CDC
compartire vb to divide W7
partire vb to divide W7
partita n.fem partita; game, match W7
Lithuanian: pir̃kti, per̃ka, pir̃ko vb to buy LRC
Greek: περάω vb to sell abroad RPN
pernanai vb to sell W7
πορεῖν vb to offer, present, furnish RPN
pornē n.fem harlot W7
pornographos n.masc writing of harlots W7
Hittite: pár-ši-ya-az-zi to break, divide RPN
Sanskrit: pūrtá-m n gift, reward RPN
prati- pfx near, towards, against, in return W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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