Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)kel-   'to cut, halve'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: sce(i)llec n rock GED
scoilt vb to split GED
Welsh: caill n testicle GED
hollt vb to split GED
Old English: culter, cultur n.masc coulter, dagger W7/ASD
hælftre n.fem halter GED
healf n.fem half, side, part GED
helma n.masc helm, rudder W7
hielfe n helve W7
scealla n testicle GED
scealu n.fem shell, hull, husk GED
sceld, scild, scield, scyld n.masc shield GED/ASD
scielfe n.wk.fem shelf GED
sciell n.fem shell, mussel GED
scilfe, scylfe n.fem shelf, ledge W7
scolu, scōl n.fem shoal, school, multitude W7/ASD
scylian vb to separate W7
scyll n.fem shell, mussel GED
slīfan vb.str to slive, splice IEW/ASD
slītan, slāt, sliton, sliten vb.str.I to slit, tear LRC
Middle English: colter, culter n coulter W7/AHD
half n half W7
halter n halter W7
halven vb to halve W7
helme n helm W7
helve n haft, handle of tool/weapon W7
scale n scale W7
scall n scall W7
scalp n scalp W7
schulle n flatfish, flounder MED
scole n school W7
sculpture n sculpture W7
shale n shale W7
sheld n shield W7
sheldrake n sheldrake W7
shelf n shelf W7
shell n shell W7
*shole n shoal, multitude W7
skil n skill W7
slippe n slip W7
slitten vb to slit W7
sliven vb to slive, slice off W7
slivere n sliver W7
English: co(u)lter n turf cutter on plow AHD/W7
cultrate adj knife-shaped, having sharp edge/point AHD/W7
cutlass n short curving sword once used by sailors AHD/W7
half n either of 2 equal parts resulting from division AHD/W7
Halfelven prop.n Elrond surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halfling prop.n hobbit epithet in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halfred prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
halter n rope/strap for tying/leading animal AHD/W7
halve vb.trans to divide in 2 equal parts AHD/W7
helm n wheel/lever controlling ship's rudder AHD/W7
helve n haft, handle of tool/weapon AHD/W7
Oakenshield prop.n epithet for Thorin in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
scagliola n imitation marble made from finely ground gypsum/glue AHD/W7
scale n thin flat rigid plate, part of body covering (esp. of fish/reptile) AHD/W7
scale n balance (pan/tray) used for weighing AHD/W7
scalene adj having unequal sides AHD/W7
scall n scurf/scabby scalp disorder AHD/W7
scalp n part of head usu. covered by hair AHD/W7
scalpel n small thin-bladed knife used for surgery AHD/W7
school n shoal, many fish/aquatic animals of same kind swimming together AHD/W7
sculpture n act/process of carving/cutting hard material into artwork AHD/W7
shale n fissile rock formed by compaction of clay/mud/silt AHD/W7
sheldrake n Old World duck AHD/W7
shelf n flat usu. long/narrow space for holding objects AHD/W7
shell n rigid carapace of mollusk/turtle/etc. AHD/W7
shelter n cover, defense, protection AHD
shelve vb to slope, incline, be steep/precipitous IEW/W7
shield n broad rigid armor piece carried via hand/arm AHD/W7
shoal n crowd, school, large group (e.g. of fish) AHD/W7
skill n cause, reason; intellectual faculty AHD/W7
skoal n health, toast AHD/W7
slip n scion, small plant cutting W7
slit, slit vb.str to cut, slash, sever W7
slive vb to sliver IEW
sliver n splinter, long slender piece cut/torn off W7
sliver vb to splinter, cut/split into slivers W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: half adj half ASD
halve n side, direction GED
skall n.masc testicle GED
skeld n shield GED
slīta vb to slit, tear, break ASD
Middle Dutch: schelpe n shell W7
schillede adj parti-colored W7
schōle n school W7/AHD
Dutch: behalve prep except TLL
schaal n eggshell; measurement scale TLL
schilder n painter LRC
schilderen vb to paint LRC
schilderij n picture TLL
schol n flatfish, flounder; scale: plate TLL
Old Saxon: halƀa n side, direction GED
half adj half GED
scāla n.fem shell GED
skala n drinking vessel ASD
skild n shield GED
skola n school, band, troop ASD
slītan vb to slit, split, tear ASD
Middle Low German: schelle n shell, scale GED
schōle n school AHD
Old High German: halb adj half GED
halb(a) n.fem side, direction GED/ASD
halftra n halter W7
helmo n tiller W7
scala n.fem shell, hull GED
scelifa n.wk.fem shell, peel GED
skilt n.masc shield GED
skolla n clod, piece KDW
slīzan vb to slit, tear apart W7
Middle High German: slitzen vb to slit W7
German: halbe n half, side ASD
halfter n halter ASD
Schale n.fem shell, hull LRC
Schild n.masc shield, buckler LRC
Schild n.neut sign, badge, label LRC
schildern vb to draw, sketch, depict, portray LRC
Schlips n.masc cravat, necktie TLL
Scholle n.fem flatfish, flounder; sod, clod; flake, scale: plate TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Eikinskjaldi prop.n Voluspa dwarf, lit. Oaken-shield TPE
hálfr adj half LRC
skalli n bald head W7
skāl n bowl W7
skālpr n sheath W7
skel n shell W7
skil n knowledge, distinction W7
skiljad, skiljað vb to divide, separate; perceive, understand LRC
skjǫldr n.masc shield LRC
Old Icelandic: halfa n side, direction GED
halfr adj half GED
Hlið-skjálf n.fem Odin's seat ASD
skel n shell, mussel GED
skjǫldr n shield GED
Icelandic: hālfa n half, side ASD
hālfr adj half ASD
skál n scale, bowl (of a balance) ASD
skjöldr n shield ASD
slíta vb to slit, tear, break ASD
Danish: skaal n cup W7
skæl n scale: plate TLL
slips n cravat, necktie TLL
Swedish: skal n shell TLL
skolla n flatfish, flounder; scale: plate SAO
sköld n shield TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: halba n half, side ASD
*halbs adj half GED
*skalja n.fem tile GED
*skildus n.masc shield GED
Latin: cultellus n.masc knife W7
culter, cultris n.masc knife, plowshare, coulter W7
cultratus adj knife-shaped W7
scalpellum n.neut little knife W7
scalpellus n.masc little knife W7
scalper n.masc chisel, knife W7
scalpō, scalpere vb to cut, carve GED
scalprum n.neut chisel, knife W7
sculpō, sculpere vb to carve, sculpt LS
sculptura n.fem sculpture W7
sculptus vb.ptc carved, sculpted W7
silex n.masc flint, pebble GED
Late Latin: scalenus adj uneven, having (three) unequal sides W7
Old French: coltre n coulter W7
Middle French: coutel n.masc knife W7
coutelas n.masc cutlass W7
French: coutre n coulter ASD
Italian: coltro n coulter ASD
scagliola n.fem plaster of Paris W7
Lithuanian: skalà n wood chip GED
skélti vb to split GED
skìltis n slice GED
Latvian: škelt vb to split GED
Old Church Slavonic: skolьka n mussel GED
Albanian: hálë n fish scale GED
Greek: κωλύω vb to hinder, prevent LRC
skalēnos adj uneven W7
σκάλλω vb to hoe, stir up GED
skolios adj crooked W7
Sanskrit: kalā́ n portion, small part GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MED=Robert E. Lewis et al., eds. Middle English Dictionary (1954-1999, 2001)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at