Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)kel-   'to owe, be guilty'

Semantic Field(s): to Owe, Fault, Guilt


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde vb.ptpr.IV shall, ought to LRC
scyld(u) n.fem sin, guilt; debt, duty, what is owed GED/ASD
Middle English: shal vb.mod shall W7
English: shall vb.mod must, will have to AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: skela vb.mod should GED
skelde, schild, schuld n debt, duty, what is owed GED/ASD
skila, skal, skilun, skolde vb.ptpr to owe; shall, must ASD
Dutch: zal vb.mod.1/ shall, am/is going to TLL
zoude vb.mod.1/ would; was going to TLL
Old Saxon: skolan vb.mod should GED
skulan, skal, skulun, skolda vb.ptpr to owe; shall, must ASD
skuld n debt, duty, what is owed GED
Old Low German: sculd n guilt; debt ASD
Old High German: scal vb.mod shall, must, ought to W7
scalto vb.ptc dedicated GED
scolan, scal, sculumes, scolta vb.ptpr to owe; shall, must ASD
sculd(a) n.str.fem debt, duty, what is owed GED
scult vb.pres.ptc owing GED
s(k)ulan vb.mod should GED
Middle High German: soln vb.mod should GED
German: Schuld n.fem dept, fault, what is owed LRC
schulden vb to owe LRC
soll vb.mod.1/ should TLL
sollen vb.mod shall LRC
sollte vb.mod.1/ would TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skulu vb.mod shall, must, ought LRC
Old Icelandic: skuld n debt, duty, what is owed GED
skuldr vb.pres.ptc owing GED
skulu, skal, skulum, skyldi vb.ptpr to owe; shall, must, should GED/ASD
skyld n debt, duty, what is owed GED
Icelandic: skuld, skyld n due, tax; sake ASD
Danish: skal vb.mod.1/ should; must TLL
skulde vb.mod.1/ should have, had to TLL
Swedish: skall vb.mod.1/ shall, am/is going to TLL
skulle vb.mod.1/ would, should, was going to TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: skula adj/n.wk guilty, in debt; debtor LRC
skulan, skal, skulum, skulda vb.ptpr.IV to owe, have to, be obliged GED/ASD
Old Prussian: skellānts vb.past.ptc indebted GED
Old Lithuanian: skelù vb to owe GED
Lithuanian: kal̃tas vb.past.ptc indebted GED
skelėti vb to owe GED
skola n.fem debt W7/LD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
past=past (tense)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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