Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: steb(h)-, and stēb(h)- : stəbh-, nasalized stemb(h)-, step-, also stēp-?, nasalized stemp-, nominal stəbho-s, stemb(h)ro-s, stomb(h)o-s   'stump, post, pillar; to support, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Beam, to Lift, Raise


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: stæf n.masc staff W7
stæpe, stepe n.masc step, pace W7
stapol n.masc post, pillar W7
steppan vb to step W7
Middle English: staf n staff W7
stampen vb to stamp W7
stapel, staple n post, staple W7
step n step W7
stumpe n stump W7
English: staff n long stout stick for support in walking AHD/W7
stamp vb to pound/crush with pestle/heavy instrument AHD/W7
stampede n wild headlong rush/flight of frightened animals AHD/W7
staphylinid n rove beetle AHD
staphylorrhaphy n surgical repair of cleft palate AHD
staple n town used as center for commodity sale/exportation AHD/W7
staple n metal U with both ends driven into surface as support AHD/W7
stemma n scroll containing family names with genealogies AHD/W7
step n foot-rest for ascending/descending AHD/W7
stephanotis n woody climbing plant with showy fragrant white flowers AHD
stoop n porch/platform/stairway/veranda at house door AHD/W7
stope n steplike underground excavation AHD/W7
stump n basal portion remaining after rest is removed AHD/W7
stump n short thick paper/leather roll used to shade drawings AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stap n step, pace ASD
stapul, stapel n block ASD
stef n staff; letter ASD
Middle Dutch: stapel n step, heap; staple: emporium W7
Dutch: stoep n stoop W7
Flemish: stomp n stump (paper/leather roll), lit. stub W7
Old Saxon: bōk-staf n letter ASD
staf n staff; letter ASD
Low German: stope n stope, lit. step W7
Old High German: stab, stap n staff ASD/W7
stafol, stafel n basis ASD
stampfōn vb to stamp W7
stap n staff ASD
stapfo n step W7
stumpf n stump W7
German: Stab n.masc staff LRC
Stapel n.masc pile, stack LRC
Stapfen n.masc footprint LRC
stapfen vb to stump, tramp LRC
Stumpf n.masc stump LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: stafr n staff, post; letter ASD
stöpull n pillar ASD
Danish: stabel n post, boundary stone ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: stabs n element, rudiment ASD
Latin: stemma n.fem garland, chaplet, genealogical tree W7
temno, temnere vb to despise W7
Spanish: estampa n stamp TLL
estampida n.fem crash W7
American Spanish: estampida n.fem stampede W7
French: estompe n stump (paper/leather roll) W7
étampe n stamp TLL
Latvian: stabiņš n.masc little pillar LRC
Old Church Slavonic: stepenьnъ adj re: step/grade/level LRC
Homeric Greek: στέμμα n.neut wreath, chaplet, fillet LRC
στέφω vb to crown, enwreath LRC
Greek: stembein vb to shake up W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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