Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)teg-   'to deck, thatch, cover; house, roof'

Semantic Field(s): to Cover, House, Roof


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: étach n garment RPN
tech n house RPN
tugatóir n thatcher RPN
tugid vb to roof over, to cover RPN
Old Welsh: tig n house RPN
Old English: tigele n.fem tile, brick W7
þæc n.neut thatch, roof RPN
þ(e)aca n.masc roof, covering RPN
ðeccan, ðeahte, ðeaht vb.wk.I to cover, conceal LRC
þeccan vb to cover RPN
Middle English: detecten vb to detect W7
tegument n tegument W7
thecchen vb to thatch W7
tile n tile W7
toile n cloth W7
English: deck n covering, floor/platform (e.g. on ship) AHD/W7
deck vb.trans to cover AHD/W7
deckle n detachable wooden frame around mold AHD/W7
detect vb.trans to discover true/hidden/disguised character of AHD/W7
integument n something that covers/encloses AHD/W7
obtect adj re: enclosure in firm chitinous case/covering AHD/W7
protect vb.trans to guard, shield from injury/destruction AHD/W7
stegodon n extinct elephant-like mammal AHD
stegosaur n herbivorous dinosaur with bony back-plates AHD
tectrix n covert, shelter, hiding place AHD/W7
tectum n rooflike structure of body AHD
tegmen n integument, superficial layer/cover AHD/W7
tegmentum n tegmen, covering AHD/W7
tegular adj re: tile AHD/W7
tegument n integument AHD/W7
thatch n (covering of) straw/plant material W7
thatch vb.trans to cover (with thatch) AHD/W7
thug n brutal ruffian/assassin AHD/W7
tile n piece of fired clay AHD/W7
toga n loose outer garment AHD/W7
tuille n hinged armor thigh plate AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thekka vb to deck ASD
Dutch: dak n roof TLL
dek n deck TLL
deken n blanket TLL
dekken vb to deck W7
Old Saxon: þekkian vb to deck, thatch RPN
Old Low German: thekkan vb to deck ASD
Middle Low German: *vordeck n deck W7
vordecken vb to deck W7
Low German: *verdeck n deck W7
Old High German: dah n.neut deck, roof, blanket ASD
decchen, decken vb to deck RPN/W7
decchi n deck, roof RPN
ziagel, ziagalo n.fem tile, brick, earthenware jar ASD
German: Dach n.neut deck, roof, cover, shelter ASD
Deck n.neut deck TLL
Decke n.fem roof, cover, blanket TLL
Deckel n.masc lid, cover W7
decken vb to deck W7
Verdeck n.neut deck W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tigl n tile W7
þekja n.fem deck, thatch, roof LRC
Old Icelandic: staka n skin, hide RPN
þekja vb to deck, thatch RPN
Icelandic: tigl n.neut tile, brick ASD
þak n.neut deck, roof ASD
þekja vb to deck, thatch ASD
Danish: daek n deck TLL
tag n roof TLL
Swedish: däck n deck TLL
tak n roof, ceiling TLL
Latin: detectus vb.ptc detected W7
detego, detegere vb to detect, uncover W7
intectus, intecta, intectum adj uncovered LRC
intego, integere vb to cover W7
integumentum n.neut cover, protection W7
obtectus vb.ptc covered over W7
obtego, obtegere vb to cover over W7
protectus vb.ptc protected W7
protego, protegere vb to protect, cover W7
tector n.masc one that covers W7
tēctum n.neut deck, roof RPN
teges n mat, rug, covering RPN
tegimentum n.neut tegmentum, envelope W7
tegmen n.neut tegmen W7
tego, tegere vb to thatch, cover, conceal, protect RPN
tegula, tegulae n.fem tile LRC
tegulum n roof, covering RPN
tegumen, teguminis n.neut clothing, covering LRC
tegumentum n.neut tegmentum, envelope W7
toga n.fem covering; (Roman) garment RPN
New Latin: tectrix, tectricis n.fem covering feather W7
tegmen, tegminis n.neut tegmen W7
tegmentum n.neut tegmentum W7
Portuguese: teto n roof, thatch TLL
Spanish: techo n roof, thatch TLL
Middle French: tuille n.fem tile W7
French: toit n roof, thatch TLL
Italian: tetto n roof, thatch TLL
Old Prussian: steege n barn RPN
stogis n roof RPN
Lithuanian: stógas n roof RPN
Old Church Slavonic: o-stegъ n garment RPN
Homeric Greek: τέγος n roof, thatch; covered part of house RPN
Greek: στέγη n roof, thatch RPN
στέγος n.neut roof, thatch; covered part of house RPN
στέγω vb to thatch, cover, conceal, protect RPN
τέγη n roof, thatch RPN
Sanskrit: sthaga n thug, rogue W7
sthagati vb to veil, cover, conceal RPN
sthagita-ḥ adj covered, concealed, hidden RPN
Hindi: ṭhag n thug, thief W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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