PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: 3c. u̯er-, u̯(e)r-ed- 'to sway, bend down'
Semantic Field(s): to Bend
|Old English:||wrǣstan||vb||to wrest, bend, twist||W7/ASD|
|wrǣstlian||vb.freq||to bend, twist, wrestle||W7/ASD|
|Middle English:||wrasten, wresten||vb||to wrest||W7|
|wrastlen, wrestlen||vb||to wrestle||W7|
|English:||wrest||vb.trans||to pull/force/move by violent wringing/twisting||AHD/W7|
|wrestle||vb||to contend by grappling/striving to trip/throw||AHD/W7|
|Middle Dutch:||wrastelen||vb||to wrestle||ASD|
|Gothic:||wratōn||vb.wk.II||to go, wander, journey||LRC|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|