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Gothic: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<áihts> possession -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <áins> one -- <áins> alone, only -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <áins> one, some -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <áinshun> (always with negative) (no) one, (n)one -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <áir> soon, early -- [Pokorny ā̆ier-, ā̆ien- :: day(light), morning]   -- <áiþei> mother -- <áiþþáu> or, else -- <áiwiskōn> to act unseemly -- [Pokorny aigh- :: to be ashamed]   -- <áiws> time, lifetime, age, eternity -- [Pokorny aiu̯-, ai̯u- :: vitality, life force]   -- <áugō> eye -- [Pokorny ok- :: to see, ogle; eye]   -- <áuk> for, because; but, also -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <áusō> ear -- [Pokorny 2. ōus- : əus- : us- :: ear]   -- <áuþida> desert, wasteland -- [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   -- <abraba> strongly, excessively, very, very much -- [Pokorny abhro- :: strong, mighty]   -- <af> from, of -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <afar> after, according to -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <afarsabbatus> day after the Sabbath, Sunday -- <afguþs> godless, impious -- <afƕapjan> to choke -- <aflagjan> to put away -- <aflētan> to leave, to forgive -- <aflifnan> to remain -- [Pokorny 1. leip- :: to smear (with fat), stick]   -- <afstandan> to stand off, to depart -- <aftra> back, again -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <afwalwjan> to roll away -- <aggilus> angel, messenger -- <agis> fear -- [Pokorny agh- :: to ail, fear, be depressed]   -- <Agustus> Augustus -- <ahmins> spirit, the Spirit -- <aírþa> earth -- [Pokorny 4. er-, er-t-, er-u̯- :: earth]   -- <aírþeins> earthly, born of the earth -- <aíþþáu> or, else -- <ak> but, however -- [Pokorny ati, ato- :: over, beyond]   -- <akei> but, yet, still, nevertheless -- <akran> fruit -- [Pokorny ōg-, əg- :: to grow; fruit, berry]   -- <alhs> temple -- [Pokorny aleq- :: to protect, ward off]   -- <alja> than, except, unless, save; except -- <aljanōn> to envy -- <all> all, every -- <alls> all, every -- [Pokorny 1. al-, ol- :: beyond; other, alien]   -- <amēn> amen, truly -- <ana> in, on, upon, at, over; to, into; against -- [Pokorny 4. an-, anu, anō, nō :: on, along, over there]   -- <anabiudan> to command, order -- [Pokorny bheudh-, nasalized bhu-n-dh- :: to awaken, be aware]   -- <anafilhan> to transmit, to hand down -- <anaks> at once, suddenly -- [Pokorny 4. an-, anu, anō, nō :: on, along, over there]   -- <anakumbjan> to recline, to sit down -- <anamēljan> to enroll -- <anananþjan> to dare -- [Pokorny nant- :: to dare, risk]   -- <anaqiman> to approach -- <andawaúrdi> answer -- <andháusjan> to hear, to obey -- <andhafjan> to answer -- <andniman> to receive, to take -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <Andraías> Andrew -- <andwaírþi> face, presence -- <ansts> grace, favor -- [Pokorny ans- :: favorable, well inclined]   -- <anþar> other, another; second -- [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   -- <armahaírtiþa> charity, alms -- <armaiō> pity, alms -- <aromata> (pl.) spices -- <at> at, by, to, with, of -- [Pokorny 1. ad- :: at, by, to]   -- <atáugjan> to show, to appear -- [Pokorny 1. ad- :: at, by, to]   -- <atgaggan> to come, go -- <atgiban> to give, deliver -- <atsaíƕan> to observe, to take heed -- <atta> father -- [Pokorny ā̆tos, atta :: daddy, mommy (nursery word)]   -- <awiliudōn> to give thanks -- [Pokorny 3. lēu-, or lāu- :: (onomatopoeic: to bark, howl, etc.)]   -- <baíran> to bear, to carry -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <baírhtei> brightness -- <barizeins> of barley -- <barn> child -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <barniskei> childish thing -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <baúrgs> city, town -- [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   -- <Bēþlahaím> Bethlehem -- <bi> by, about; concerning; around, against; according to, on account of; for; at; after; near -- [Pokorny ambhi, m̥bhi :: around, at both sides]   -- <bidjan> to ask, to pray -- [Pokorny 2. bhedh- :: to flex, bend, crook]   -- <bigitan> to find, meet -- [Pokorny ghend-, and ghed- :: to get, grasp, seize]   -- <birusjōs> parents -- <biskeinan> to shine around -- <biþē> while, when, after that, as soon as; then, thereupon -- <biūhti> custom -- <biwáibjan> to clothe, to wrap -- [Pokorny u̯eip-, u̯eib- :: to turn, whip, sway, vibrate]   -- <biwindan> to wrap -- <bōkareis> scribe -- <bōta> advantage -- [Pokorny bhā̆d- :: good, better]   -- <briggan> to bring -- [Pokorny bhrenk-, bhronk- :: to bring]   -- <brōþar> brother -- [Pokorny bhrā́ter- :: brother, family member]   -- <bugjan> to buy -- [Pokorny 3. bheug-, bheugh- :: to bow, flex, bend, crook]   -- <dáils> share, portion -- [Pokorny dā : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆- :: to share, divide]   -- <dáuþs> dead -- <dags> day -- [Pokorny ā̆g̑her-, ā̆g̑hen-, ā̆g̑hes-, or ō̆g̑her etc. :: day, dawn]   -- <dalaþ> down -- [Pokorny 1. dhel-, dholo- :: curve; dell, hollow]   -- <daúr> doorway -- [Pokorny dhu̯ē̆r-, dhu̯ō̆r-, dhur-, dhu̯r̥- :: door]   -- <Daweid> David -- <diabaúlus> devil -- <dissitan> to seize upon -- <diups> deep -- [Pokorny dheu-b-, dheu-p- :: deep, hollow]   -- <dráusna> piece -- <du> to, towards; against; in -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <duginnan> to begin -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <dulþs> feast -- <duþē> therefore, because, besides, on that account -- <ei> that, so that; whether; (relative particle) -- <fadreins> family, lineage -- <faginōn> to rejoice -- [Pokorny 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑- :: to be joyful, make pretty]   -- <fahēds> joy -- <faírguni> mountain -- [Pokorny perku-s :: oak]   -- <faírra> far from -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <faúr> for, before, by -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <faúra> before, for -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <faúrþis> first, beforehand -- <faúrþizei> before -- <faurbigaggan> to go before -- <faurhtjan> to fear, to be afraid -- [Pokorny 2. perg- :: fear; to frighten]   -- <fidwōr tigjus> forty -- [Pokorny dek̑m̥, dek̑m̥-t, dek̑u- :: ten, decade]   -- <Filippus> Philip -- <filu> much, many -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <filuwaúrdei> wordiness -- <filuwaúrdjan> to use many words, to be wordy -- <fimf> five -- [Pokorny penke :: five, fifth]   -- <fisks> fish -- [Pokorny peisk-, pisk- :: fish]   -- <fláutjan> be pretentious -- [Pokorny pleu- :: to flee, fly, run; flow, swim]   -- <fōtus> foot -- [Pokorny 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d- :: foot]   -- <fráisan> to tempt -- <fráistubni> temptation -- <fráiw> seed -- <fráuja> lord, master -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fraatjan> to give as food -- [Pokorny ed- :: to eat]   -- <fragifts> a giving away, espousal -- <fraíhnan> to ask, question -- [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   -- <fraitan> to devour -- [Pokorny ed- :: to eat]   -- <frakunnan> to despise -- <fram> from, by, since, on account of -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fraqistnan> to be lost, to perish -- <fraþjan> to understand -- [Pokorny pret-, prō̆t- :: to understand]   -- <frawaúrhts> sin -- [Pokorny 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑- :: to do, work, be effective]   -- <friaþwa> love, charity -- [Pokorny prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri- :: to like, feel friendly/well-disposed]   -- <frijōn> to love -- [Pokorny prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri- :: to like, feel friendly/well-disposed]   -- <frisahts> image -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <frōdei> wisdom, understanding -- <fruma> former, first -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <frumabaúr> first-born -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fugls> bird, fowl -- [Pokorny pleu- :: to flee, fly, run; flow, swim]   -- <fulhsni> hidden thing, secret -- <fullafahjan> to satisfy, to serve -- [Pokorny 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑- :: to be joyful, make pretty]   -- <fulls> full -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <gáumjan> to observe, perceive, see -- [Pokorny ghou̯(ē)- :: to gawk, be aware of, pay attention to]   -- <gabaíran> to bring forth -- <gabeidan> to abide, to await -- <gabōtjan> to make useful, to restore -- <gabrannjan> to burn -- <gabruka> fragment -- [Pokorny 1. bhreg̑- :: to break]   -- <gadáiljan> to divide -- <gadriusan> to fall, fail -- <gafastan> to keep, hold fast -- <gafulljan> to fill -- <gaggan> to come, go -- [Pokorny g̑hengh- :: to step, stride, march]   -- <gagrēfts> decree -- <gaháusjan> to hear -- <gaƕeilan> to cease -- <gaƕeitjan> to whiten -- <gajukō> parable -- <gakannjan> to make known -- <galáubeins> faith, belief -- <galáubjan> to believe -- [Pokorny leubh- :: to love, like, care for]   -- <galagjan> to lay, put -- <galeikōn> to be like -- <Galeilaia> Galilee -- <Galeilaius> Galilean -- <galeiþan> to go, travel -- [Pokorny 2. leit(h)- :: to die, go away]   -- <galisan> to gather -- <galūkan> to shut, to close -- [Pokorny 1. leug- :: to bend]   -- <gamēljan> to write, enroll -- <ganiman> to take to oneself, to take with oneself -- <ganiþjis> kinsman -- <ganōhs> enough -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <gaqumþs> assembly, synagogue -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <gards> house, household -- [Pokorny g̑herdh-, and gherdh- :: to gird, enclose, encompass]   -- <garēhsns> time, determination, design, plan -- [Pokorny 2. rē̆k- :: to reck, reckon, arrange, prepare]   -- <garuns> street -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <gasaíƕan> to see -- <gasakan> to rebuke, to reprove -- [Pokorny sāg- :: to seek, track, trail]   -- <gasalbōn> annoint -- <gasatjan> to set, to place -- <gasinþja> companion, company -- <gasitan> to sit -- <gastandan> to stay -- <gastangqjan> to dash against -- <gatáujan> to do, make -- <gataíran> to destroy, to break -- [Pokorny 4. der-, heavy-base derə-, drē- :: to cut, skin, split, tear]   -- <gatarhjan> to expose, to make public -- [Pokorny derk̑- :: to look]   -- <gataúrnan> to vanish, to be destroyed -- [Pokorny 4. der-, heavy-base derə-, drē- :: to cut, skin, split, tear]   -- <gateihan> to tell -- [Pokorny deik̑- :: to teach, show]   -- <gatiuhan> to lead, to bring -- [Pokorny deuk- :: to tug, pull, drag, tow]   -- <gaþaúrsnan> to be withered -- [Pokorny ters- :: to toast, dry; thirst]   -- <gaþliuhan> to flee -- <gawaírþi> peace -- <gawandjan> to bring back, return -- <gawaúrkjan> to make -- <giban> to give, yield -- [Pokorny ghabh- :: to take, grab, seize]   -- <gibla> gable, pinnacle -- [Pokorny ghebh-el-, ghebh-el-, ghebh-elo- :: gable, head]   -- <gilstramēleins> taxation, taxing -- <glitmunjan> to glitter, to shine -- [Pokorny 1. g̑hel-, and ghel-?, also as i-, u-, or n-stem; g̑helə-, g̑hlē-, g̑hlō-, g̑hlə- :: to shine, glare, glow; gold, yellow, bright color]   -- <gōþs, gōds> good -- [Pokorny ghedh-, ghodh- :: to join, unite, gather, make a bond]   -- <grēdags> hungry -- [Pokorny 1. g̑her- :: to desire, yearn for]   -- <grētan> to weep -- [Pokorny 1. gher- :: (onomatopoeic: to snarl, rattle, etc.)]   -- <guþ> God -- [Pokorny g̑hau-, g̑hau̯ə- :: to call]   -- <háifsts> fight, strife -- [Pokorny k̑ēi-bh- :: fast, hasty, violent]   -- <háitan> to call -- [Pokorny kēi- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <háuhisti> the highest -- <háuhjan> to exalt, to glorify -- <háuhs> high -- <háusjan> to hear, listen -- <haban> to have -- [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   -- <haírda> herd -- [Pokorny k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā :: line, row, herd]   -- <haírdeis> herdsman -- [Pokorny k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā :: line, row, herd]   -- <haírtō> heart -- [Pokorny k̑ered- : k̑erd-, k̑ērd-, k̑r̥d-, k̑red- :: heart]   -- <haldis> rather, more -- <handus> hand -- <harjis> army, host -- [Pokorny koro-s, kori̯o-s :: war, army, warrior]   -- <haúrds> door -- [Pokorny kert-, kerət-, krāt- :: to roll, turn, wind]   -- <haúrnjan> to blow a horn -- <hauhs> high -- [Pokorny 2. keu-, keu̯ə- :: to bend]   -- <hausjan> to hear -- [Pokorny 1. keu-, skeu-, lengthened grade kēu- :: to see, hear, observe, hearken, attend to]   -- <hawi> grass -- [Pokorny kāu-, kəu- :: to hew, cut, hit]   -- <hazjan> to praise -- <Hēlias> Elias -- <hēr> here -- [Pokorny k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o- :: this; here]   -- <hēþjō> room, chamber -- [Pokorny kē̆t-, kot- :: room, dwelling place]   -- <her\> here -- [Pokorny k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o- :: this; here]   -- <himinakunds> heavenly -- [Pokorny 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to bear, produce, generate]   -- <himins> heaven -- [Pokorny 3. k̑em- :: to wrap, cover, conceal]   -- <*his> this -- <hláifs> bread, loaf -- <hláiw> grave, tomb -- <hleiduma> left; (fem. subst.) left hand, left side -- [Pokorny k̑lei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   -- <*hlija> tent, tabernacle -- [Pokorny k̑lei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   -- <hugjan> to think, to suppose -- <hund> hundred -- [Pokorny dek̑m̥, dek̑m̥-t, dek̑u- :: ten, decade]   -- <ƕa> why -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ƕáiwa> how, in what way -- [Pokorny 1. ei- :: to go, exit]   -- <ƕan> at any time -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ƕarjizuh> each, every -- <ƕas> who, what -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ƕaþrō> whence, where -- <ƕazuh> each, every -- <ƕeits> white -- [Pokorny 3. k̑uei-, extended kuei-d-, kuei-s-, kuei-t- :: to shine; white]   -- <Iaírusalēm> Jerusalem -- <Iaírusaúlwma> Jerusalem -- <Iakōb> Jacob, James -- <Iakōbus> Jacob, James -- <*Iaúrdanus> Jordan -- <ibái> lest, that not -- [Pokorny 2. bhē̆, bhō̆ :: (emphatic particle)]   -- <Iēsus> Jesus -- <ik> I -- [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   -- <in> into, towards; on account of; in, among, by -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <ingramjan> to provoke -- <inkilþō> with child -- [Pokorny 1. gel- :: to curl, form into ball; round]   -- <inmáidjan> to transfigure -- [Pokorny 2. mei-t(h)- :: to commute, (ex)change]   -- <insaíƕan> to look upon, regard -- <*insakan> to designate, to put forth -- <inweitan> to worship -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <inwindiþa> injustice -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ei-, u̯ei̯ə- : u̯ī̆- :: to bend, turn, wind]   -- <inwisan> to be present, near at hand -- <Iōhannēs> John -- <Iōsēf> Joseph -- <is> he, she, it -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <ita> it -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <iþ> but, however, if -- [Pokorny eti :: out, beyond, etc.]   -- <Iudaia> Judea -- <*Iudaieis> Jew -- <izwar> your, yours -- <jáinar> yonder, there -- <jáins> that -- [Pokorny eno-, possibly e-no- : ono- : no- : -ne- :: that]   -- <jabái> if, even if, although -- [Pokorny 2. bhē̆, bhō̆ :: (emphatic particle)]   -- <jah> and, also -- <jaþþē> and if, whether -- <jēr> year -- [Pokorny 1. ei- :: to go, exit]   -- <ju> now, already -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <juggaláuþs> young man -- [Pokorny 1. leudh- :: to grow up; free; people]   -- <káisar> Caesar -- <kindins> governor -- [Pokorny 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to bear, produce, generate]   -- <klismjan> to clang -- <klismō> cymbal -- <Xristus> Christ -- <kunnan> to know -- [Pokorny 2. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to ken, know, recognize]   -- <kunþi> knowledge -- [Pokorny 2. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to ken, know, recognize]   -- <kunþs> known, acquaintance -- [Pokorny 2. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to ken, know, recognize]   -- <Kwreinaíus> Cyrenius -- <láisareis> teacher, master -- <láiseins> doctrine, teaching -- <láisjan> to teach -- [Pokorny leis- :: to furrow; learn]   -- <láistjan> to follow -- [Pokorny leis- :: to furrow; learn]   -- <láun> reward, wage -- [Pokorny lāu- :: to acquire (as booty), enjoy something]   -- <láusjan> to free, to deliver -- [Pokorny 2. leu- :: to free, cut off, separate]   -- <land> land, country -- [Pokorny 3. lendh- :: heath, steppe, open land]   -- <leik> body, flesh -- [Pokorny 2. lē̆ig-, līg- :: form, appearance; like, similar]   -- <leitils> little -- [Pokorny 2. lei- :: to dissipate, disappear; thin, weak]   -- <liban> to live -- [Pokorny 1. kai-, kai-u̯o-, kai-u̯elo- :: alone]   -- <liufs> dear, beloved -- [Pokorny leubh- :: to love, like, care for]   -- <liuta> hypocrite -- <magan> to be able -- [Pokorny magh- : māgh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   -- <Magdalēnē> Magdalene -- <magula> little boy -- <magus> boy, son -- [Pokorny maghos :: maiden, young person]   -- <mahts> power -- [Pokorny magh- : māgh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   -- <manag> much, many -- <managáim> much, many -- <managei> crowd, multitude -- <manags> much, many -- <manasēþs> mankind, the world -- [Pokorny 2. sē(i)- : səi- : sī-, sē- : sə-, and sei- : si- :: to sow, dispatch, disseminate, let fall]   -- <manna> man -- [Pokorny manu-s, or monu-s :: man, human being]   -- <mannahun> (always with negative) (no) one, (n)one -- <marei> sea, lake -- [Pokorny mori, mōri :: mere, sea]   -- <Maria> Mary -- <Marja> Mary -- <markaíllius> Marcellus -- <matjan> to eat -- [Pokorny mad- :: to drip; wet; fat, glossy, well-fed]   -- <maúrgins> morning -- [Pokorny 2. mer- :: to flicker, shimmer]   -- <mēl> time, season -- [Pokorny 3. mē-, m-e-t- :: to measure]   -- <mēljan> to register, to enroll -- [Pokorny 6. mel-, melə- :: dark color (black, dirty, etc.)]   -- <meins> my, mine -- [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   -- <midjis> middle -- [Pokorny medhi-, medhi̯o- :: middle]   -- <midjungards> earth, world -- [Pokorny medhi-, medhi̯o- :: middle]   -- <mikilei> greatness -- [Pokorny meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-]   -- <mikils> great -- [Pokorny meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-]   -- <milhma> cloud -- [Pokorny 2. melk-, melg- :: wet]   -- <missadēþs> misdeed, sin -- <missō> reciprocally, the one the other, one to another -- [Pokorny 2. mei-t(h)- :: to commute, (ex)change]   -- <mitōn> to think, consider -- [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   -- <miþ> with, among, together with, through, by, near -- [Pokorny 2. me- :: by, with, amidst, around]   -- <miþfaginōn> to rejoice with -- <miþsatjan> to move, to remove -- <miþþanei> while, during, when -- <mizdō> reward -- [Pokorny mizdhó- :: fee, pay, meed, reward]   -- <Mōsēs> Moses -- <nahts> night -- [Pokorny nek-(t-), nok-t-s :: night]   -- <namō> name -- [Pokorny en(o)mn̥-, (o)nomn̥, nōmn̥ :: name]   -- <nasjan> to save -- [Pokorny nes- :: to unite; be concealed]   -- <Nazaraíþ> Nazareth -- <Nazaraíus> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- <nēƕa> near -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <ni> not -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <nibái (niba)> unless, except -- [Pokorny 2. bhē̆, bhō̆ :: (emphatic particle)]   -- <niman> to take, receive -- [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   -- <niuklahs> young, childish -- [Pokorny 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to bear, produce, generate]   -- <nu> now, therefore -- [Pokorny nū̆- :: now]   -- <*ōgan> to fear, to be afraid -- <ōgan> to be afraid -- <Paítrus> Peter -- <paska> Passover -- <*plapja> street, square -- <praúfētja> prophecy -- <praúfētjan> to prophesy -- <praúfētus> prophet -- <qáinōn> to lament -- [Pokorny 1. gei- :: to cry, weep, complain]   -- <qeins> wife -- <qiman> to come, arrive -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <qiþan> to say, speak -- [Pokorny 2. get- :: to speak, talk]   -- <rabbei> rabbi, master, teacher -- <raginōn> to rule -- <raíhtis> indeed -- <raþjō> number -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <razda> tongue, language -- [Pokorny rā̆s- :: to cry, (re)sound]   -- <reirō> trembling -- [Pokorny rei-r(ēi)- :: (onomatopoeic: to quake, tremble)]   -- <rōdjan> to speak -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <rūms> room -- [Pokorny reu̯ə- : rū- :: to ream, open; wide, roomy]   -- <rūna> mystery, secret -- [Pokorny 1. reu-, rēu-, rū̆- :: (onomatopoeic: to roar, rout, round, etc.)]   -- <sa, so, þata> this, that -- [Pokorny so(s), sā :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   -- <sái> lo, behold -- <sabaíllius> Sabellius -- <sabbatō> Sabbath -- <sabbatus> Sabbath -- <*sads> satisfied -- <saei> who, he who, which -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <saíhs> six -- [Pokorny su̯ek̑s, sek̑s, ksek̑s, ksu̯ek̑s, u̯ek̑s : uk̑s :: six]   -- <saíhs tigjus> sixty -- <saíƕan> to see -- [Pokorny 2. sek- :: to see, notice; show, say, speak]   -- <saian> to sow -- [Pokorny 2. sē(i)- : səi- : sī-, sē- : sə-, and sei- : si- :: to sow, dispatch, disseminate, let fall]   -- <Salōmē> Salome -- <sama> same -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <samaleikō> in like manner, likewise -- <Saúr> Syrian -- <sēls> kind, good -- [Pokorny 6. sel-, selə- : slā- :: lucky, favorable; luck]   -- <Seimōn> Simon -- <seina> one's own -- <*seins> one's own -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <sibun> seven -- [Pokorny septm̥ :: seven]   -- <sik> himself, herself, oneself -- [Pokorny ghe-, gho- :: (enclitic (emphatic?) particle)]   -- <silba> self -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <sildaleikjan> to wonder, to marvel -- <sinteins> daily -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <sipōneis> disciple -- <sitan> to sit -- [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   -- <siuks> sick -- [Pokorny seug- :: sad, sick, grievous, afflicted]   -- <skatts> coin, denarius -- <skip> ship -- [Pokorny skē̆i- :: to cut, skive, exscind, separate]   -- <skuggwa> mirror -- [Pokorny 2. (s)keu-, (s)keu̯ə : (s)kū- :: to hide, wrap, cover]   -- <skula> owing, in debt, guilty; (weak subst.) debtor -- [Pokorny 2. (s)kel- :: to owe, be guilty]   -- <*skulan> to owe, be obliged -- [Pokorny 2. (s)kel- :: to owe, be guilty]   -- <snáiws> snow -- [Pokorny sneigh- :: to snow; snow]   -- <sōkjan> to seek, ask -- [Pokorny sāg- :: to seek, track, trail]   -- <spillōn> to tell, relate -- [Pokorny (s)pel- :: to speak aloud, tell with emphasis]   -- <stáinahs> stony -- <stáins> stone -- [Pokorny stāi-, stī̆-, sti̯-ā- :: to condense, press together; stiff; stone]   -- <standan> to stand -- [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   -- <staþs> place; land -- [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   -- <stibna> voice -- <stiks> point, moment -- [Pokorny (s)teig- :: to stick, prick; sharp]   -- <suman> once, formerly; in part -- <sums> some, one -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <sundrō> alone, apart -- [Pokorny seni-, senu-, seni-, sn̥-ter- :: for oneself; sundry, separate]   -- <sunja> truth -- [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   -- <sunnō> sun -- [Pokorny sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- :: Sol, sun]   -- <suns> at once, soon -- <sunus> son -- [Pokorny 2. seu-, seu̯ə-, sū̆- :: to bear (a child); son]   -- <swa> so, thus, as -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <swaleiks> such -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <swaswē> as, just as; so as; so as to, so that -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <swē> like, as, just as; so that; about -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <swēþáuh> indeed, however -- <Swria> Syria -- <táikns> sign, wonder -- [Pokorny deik̑- :: to teach, show]   -- <táinjō> basket -- <táujan> to do, to make -- [Pokorny 2. deu-, or dou- : du- :: to worship, venerate; mighty]   -- <taíhswa> right; (fem. subst.) right hand, right side -- [Pokorny 1. dek̑- :: to take]   -- <taíhuntēhund> hundred -- [Pokorny dek̑m̥, dek̑m̥-t, dek̑u- :: ten, decade]   -- <taujan> to do -- [Pokorny 2. deu-, or dou- : du- :: to worship, venerate; mighty]   -- <*Tibaíriadeis> Tiberians -- <tiuhan> to lead, to guide -- [Pokorny 2. deu-, or dou- : du- :: to worship, venerate; mighty]   -- <twa> two -- [Pokorny du̯ō(u) :: two, duo]   -- <twái> two -- [Pokorny du̯ō(u) :: two, duo]   -- <twalibwintrus> twelve years old -- <twalif> twelve -- <þáu> then, in that case -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <þáuhjabái> even though -- <þaírh> through; by, by means of; on account of -- [Pokorny 5. ter- :: through, over, etc.]   -- <þaírhwakan> to stay awake -- <þan> then, when -- <þan> when, as (long as); then, at that time; but, and, however -- <þanaseiþs> further, still -- [Pokorny 2. sē(i)- : səi- : sī-, sē- : sə-, and sei- : si- :: to sow, dispatch, disseminate, let fall]   -- <þar> there -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <þaruh> therefore, but, and; there; now -- <þata> the -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <þata> this, that -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <þatáinei> only -- <þatei> that, because, if -- <þaþrō> thence -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <þaþrōh> afterwards, thence -- <þaúrban> to need, to be in want -- [Pokorny terp-, trep- :: to enjoy, satisfy oneself]   -- <þaúrnus> thorn -- [Pokorny 7. (s)ter-n- :: thorn, prickly stalk]   -- <þei> that, so that; as -- [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   -- <þeihan> to thrive, to prosper -- [Pokorny 2. tenk- :: to clot, thicken, contract; tight, solid]   -- <þeins> thy, thine, your, yours -- <þisƕazuh> whoever, whosoever -- <þiuda> people; (pl.) heathens, Gentiles -- [Pokorny tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆- :: to swell, intumesce]   -- <þiudangardi> kingdom -- <þiudinassus> kingdom -- <*þreis> three -- [Pokorny trei- :: three, trio]   -- <þreis tigjus> thirty -- <þu> thou, you -- [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   -- <þūsundi> thousand -- [Pokorny tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆- :: to swell, intumesce]   -- <þugkjan> to seem -- [Pokorny 1. tong-, *teng- :: to think, feel]   -- <þulan> to endure, to bear -- [Pokorny 1. tel-, telə-, tlē(i)-, tlā- :: to bear, carry; weigh, lift up]   -- <þungkjan> to seem -- <-u> (interrogative particle, attached enclitically to first word of its clause) -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <ūta> out, without -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <ubils> bad, evil -- [Pokorny upo, up, eup, (e)up-s- :: under, (from) below, etc.]   -- <ufar> over, above, beyond -- [Pokorny upér, upéri :: over, above]   -- <ufarō> above, upon, over -- [Pokorny upér, upéri :: over, above]   -- <ufarskadwjan> to over-shadow -- <ufarsteigan> to spring up, to mount up -- <ufblēsan> to puff up -- [Pokorny 3. bhel-, bhlē- :: to grow, spread, swell, inflate]   -- <ufbrinnan> to scorch -- <ufháusjan> to obey, to be obedient -- <ufhaban> to hold up, to bear up -- <ufkunnan> to know, to recognize -- <-uh> but, and, now, therefore -- [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   -- <und> up to, until, for -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <unhulþō> unclean spirit, evil spirit -- <unsar> our, ours -- <untē> for, because, since, until -- <urreisan> to arise -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <urrinnan> to rise, come from, go forth -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <us> out, out of, from -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <usagjan> to frighten, to terrify -- [Pokorny agh- :: to ail, fear, be depressed]   -- <usbeisneigs> long-suffering, patient -- <usbugjan> to buy -- <usfilmei> amazement -- <usfullnan> to be fulfilled -- <usgaggan> to go out -- <usgeisnan> to be amazed, astonished -- [Pokorny gheis-, and g̑heiz-d- :: shocked, aghast, confused]   -- <usgiban> to reward, to give out -- <ushafjan> to lift up -- <ushramjan> to crucify -- <usstandan> to stand up, rise -- <ustiuhan> to lead out; to complete -- <uswaírpan> to cast out, to reject -- <uzēta> manger -- [Pokorny ed- :: to eat]   -- <wahsjan> to grow, to increase -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <wahstus> size, stature -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <wahtwō> watch -- <waíhsta> corner -- [Pokorny 4. u̯eik-, u̯eig-, extended form of u̯ei- :: to bend, curve; exchange, pass around]   -- <waíhts> thing -- [Pokorny u̯ek-ti- :: whit, thing]   -- <waír> man -- [Pokorny u̯ī̆ro-s :: man, warrior]   -- <waírpan> to throw, to cast -- [Pokorny 3b. u̯er-, u̯er-b-, and u̯er-bh- :: to bend, turn, warp]   -- <waírþan> to become, to happen -- [Pokorny 3h. u̯er-, u̯er-t- :: to turn, wind, invert]   -- <waldufni> authority -- <wasti> garment -- [Pokorny 5. u̯es- :: to dress, clothe, wear]   -- <*wasti> garment -- [Pokorny 5. u̯es- :: to dress, clothe, wear]   -- <waúrd> word -- [Pokorny 6. u̯er- :: to speak, talk formally]   -- <waúrkjan> to work, to make -- [Pokorny 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑- :: to do, work, be effective]   -- <waúrts> root -- [Pokorny u̯(e)rād-, u̯erəd-, u̯rəd- :: root, branch, twig]   -- <weihnan> to be hallowed -- <weihs> holy -- [Pokorny 1. u̯eik- :: to choose, filter, sort out]   -- <weitwōdjan> to bear witness, to testify -- <wenjan> to hope, to expect -- [Pokorny 1. u̯en-, u̯enə- :: to love, venerate, strive/wish for]   -- <wigs> way, road, journey -- [Pokorny u̯eg̑h- :: to move, drive, carry, convey]   -- <wilja> will -- [Pokorny 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   -- <wiljan> to will, wish -- [Pokorny 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   -- <winnan> to suffer -- [Pokorny 1. u̯en-, u̯enə- :: to love, venerate, strive/wish for]   -- <wisan> to be -- [Pokorny 1. u̯es- :: to live, stay overnight]   -- <*witan> to know -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <witan> to keep watch, observe -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <wiþra> against, over against; by, near; to, in reply to, in return for; on account of, for -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <wratōn> to go, to journey -- [Pokorny 3c. u̯er-, u̯(e)r-ed- :: to sway, bend down]   -- <wullareis> one who whitens wool, fuller -- <wulþus> splendor, glory -- [Pokorny 1. u̯el- :: to see]   --

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