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Avestan: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<a-> 'he, this' -- <a-> (privative) -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <a> 'no, none' -- <ā> '(up) to, toward, etc.' -- [Pokorny 1. ē̆, ō̆ :: (particle: he, this, etc.)]   -- <ā> (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion) -- <āaṯ> 'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <ātar-> 'fire' -- <ādāna-> 'portion, forging together, retaliation' -- <ādra-> 'lowly' -- <āyapta-> 'riches, bounty, boon, spoils' -- <ārmaiti-> 'devotion, piety' -- <āvarəna-> 'invitation, choice' -- <āsu-> 'swift' -- [Pokorny ōk̑ú-s :: quick(ly)]   -- <āsna-> 'successful, effective' -- [Pokorny sē[i]dh- : sī̆dh-, and sədh- :: to aim at, strive for]   -- <āzuiti-> 'fat, butter' -- <āzhuš-> 'propulsion implement' -- <āhiti-> 'defilement, pollution -- <ąnman-> 'spirit, breath' -- <aipi> 'toward, approaching' -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <aiwi> 'toward, with respect to' -- [Pokorny ebhi? : obhi : bhi :: from, around, (up) to, etc.]   -- <aurvaθana-> 'adversary' -- <aurvant-> 'swift, runner, steed' -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <aēnah-> 'sin' -- [Pokorny 2. ai- :: to drive, close in; harm, overwhelm]   -- <aēva-> 'one, alone' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <aēšasa-> 'wild' -- <aēšəma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- [Pokorny 1. eis- :: to move rapidly/violently]   -- <aēšma-> 'anger, fury, wrath' -- <aogah-> 'power, strength' -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <aorā> 'down' -- [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   -- <aka-> 'bad, evil, wicked' -- [Pokorny 2. ank-, ang- :: to flex, bend, angle]   -- <aŋhu-> 'existence, life' -- [Pokorny ansu-, ṇsu- :: ghost, spirit, demon]   -- <ajyaiti-> 'death' -- <aṯ> 'then, but, and, so, thus' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <aθā> 'so, thus, likewise' -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <aθra> 'here, there' -- <adā> 'then, thereupon, thus' -- <ana-> 'him' -- <anaēša-> 'powerless' -- <anya-> 'other' -- [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   -- <ans> 'attain' -- <apə̄məm> 'last' -- <amavant-> 'strong, powerful, vigorous' -- [Pokorny omə- :: to suffer; firm up, proceed energetically]   -- <-aya> '...' -- <ayah-> 'metal, iron' -- <ayə̄m-> 'this, that' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <ar> 'rise' -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <Armaiti-> name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety' -- <ava-> 'this, that' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <ava> 'away, down' -- [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   -- <avant-> 'as much, so much, so long, such' -- <avar> 'down' -- <avah-> 'help, helping' -- [Pokorny 7. au̯-, au̯ē-, au̯ēi- :: to like, help]   -- <aša-> 'truth' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <ašavan-> '(in accordance with) Truth' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <ašavant-> 'follower of the Truth' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <asan-> 'stone, heaven' -- <asišta-> 'fastest' -- <asura-> 'weak' -- <aspa-> 'horse' -- [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   -- <aspāna-> patronymic form of aspa- 'horse' -- [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   -- <aspi-> 'mare' -- [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   -- <azi-> 'fertile' -- [Pokorny ag̑h- :: animal that may bear young]   -- <azəm-> 'I' -- [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   -- <ah> 'energy, zest, zeal' -- <ah-> 'be, become' -- <ahu-> 'existence, life, breath' -- <ahu-> 'lord' -- <ahura-> 'lord' -- [Pokorny ansu-, ṇsu- :: ghost, spirit, demon]   -- <ahe> 'indeed, certainly' -- <ahmaṯ> 'henceforth' -- <īšā-xšaθri> 'powerful' -- <īšti-> 'sacrifice' -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <iθā> 'thus' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <idā> 'here' -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <iš> 'strive, desire, arrive' -- [Pokorny 1. ais- :: to wish, desire, ask/search for]   -- <-ista-> indicates superlative -- <uxδa-> 'word, saying' -- [Pokorny ghous- :: to sound, hear]   -- <uγra-> 'strong' -- <uta> 'and' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <utayūiti-> 'fresh, lasting, enduring' -- <upa> 'near, up on/to, etc.' -- [Pokorny upo, up, eup, (e)up-s- :: under, (from) below, etc.]   -- <uparəm> 'above' -- <uruša-> 'emaciated' -- <urvāta-> 'rule, order, commandment' -- [Pokorny 6. u̯er- :: to speak, talk formally]   -- <urvāza-> 'joy, bliss' -- <urvan-> 'soul, self' -- <uvaya-> 'both' -- <ustana-> 'stretched forth' -- [Pokorny 1. ten-, tend- :: to span, stretch, extend]   -- <erezu-> 'straight, just' -- [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   -- <ərəš-> 'right, correct, true' -- <ərəšva-> 'lofty' -- <ərəžəji-> 'living justly' -- <ərəzu-> 'straight' -- [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   -- <ə̄əāvā> 'down' -- <ə̄nəiti-> 'ill-being, lack of freedom' -- <ka-> 'who, what' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kainya-> 'maiden, girl' -- <kaēnā-> 'atonement, punishment' -- [Pokorny 1. kei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   -- <kaθā> 'how, in what way' -- <kadā> 'when' -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <kayaδa-> category of evil deed -- <kar> 'do, make' -- <ku> 'where' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kudā> 'where' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <kəvi-> 'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?) -- <kəhrp-> 'form, body, outward appearance' -- [Pokorny 1. (s)kel- :: to cut, halve]   -- <xratu-> 'will, intention, vision' -- <xraθwa-> 'power, will, insight' -- <xrūnar-> 'man-defiling' -- <xrūždra-> 'hard, firm' -- [Pokorny 1. kreu-, kreuə- : krū-, kreus-, krus- :: raw flesh, thick/clotting blood; ice, crust]   -- <xruš> 'scream, howl' -- <xrvi-> 'bloody' -- <xva-> 'self' -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <xva> 'good, worthy' -- <xvaētu-> 'belonging to the family' -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <xvathra-> 'good breathing, ease, comfort' -- [Pokorny ēter- :: intestines]   -- <xvapah-> 'dream-like' -- <xvafna-> 'sleep, dream' -- [Pokorny 1. su̯ep-, sup- :: to sleep]   -- <xvareiti-> 'nourishment' -- <xvarətha-> 'food' -- <xvarənah-> 'glory' -- [Pokorny sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- :: Sol, sun]   -- <xviti-> 'well-being, freedom of movement' -- <xšaθra-> 'power' -- <xšam> 'accept' -- <xšaya> 'ruling' -- <xšnā-> 'recognition' (?) -- <xšnā> 'know' -- <xšvid-> 'milk' -- [Pokorny su̯ēid- :: milk]   -- <xsnu> 'satisfy' -- <gairi-> 'mountain' -- [Pokorny 3. ger-, gor- :: mountain]   -- <gao-> 'cow' -- <gaona-> 'hair' -- [Pokorny gēu-, gəu-, gū- :: to bend, curl; cup, vessel]   -- <gaoman-> 'possessed of milk' -- <gaoša-> 'ear' -- [Pokorny ghous- :: to sound, hear]   -- <gad> 'ask, entreat, supplicate' -- <gan> 'smite, strike' -- <gan-> 'slayer' -- <ganya-> 'slaying, killing, destroying' -- <gam> 'go' -- <gaya-> 'life' -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <gar> 'be awake' -- <guš> 'hear' -- <gərəz-> 'lament, complain' -- <gə̄uša-> 'ear' -- <ca> 'and' -- [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   -- <carana-> 'moving, feet, support' -- [Pokorny 1. kel-, kelə- :: to turn; wheel; neck?]   -- <carəkərəθra-> '(hymns of) praise' -- <cašman-> 'eye' -- [Pokorny kek̑-, kōk̑-, kek̑-s- :: to see, show, appear]   -- <ci> 'discriminate, tell apart' -- <cīṯ> '...' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <cīṯ> 'indeed, verily, etc.' -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <ciṯ> gives indefinite or emphatic sense -- [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   -- <ciθ> indefinite marker -- <ciθrəm> 'manifest, clear, visible, plain' -- <cinā> '...' -- [Pokorny kene :: (particle: uncertainty, generalization)]   -- <cisti-> 'knowledge, thought' -- [Pokorny 1. kei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   -- <jaiti-> 'going' -- <jan> 'smite, slay, destroy' -- <jə̄naya-> 'woman' -- <jə̄nar-> 'man-killing' -- <jyātu-> 'life' -- <ṯbiš> 'hate, despise' -- [Pokorny du̯ei- :: to fear]   -- <ta-> 'he, that, this' -- <tanu-> 'body' -- <-tara-> 'more, better' -- [Pokorny 4. ter-, terə- : tr̥̄-, trā-, teru- :: to cross, get over, etc.]   -- <tas> 'carve, create, fashion, shape' -- <tašar-> 'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator' -- <tū> '...' -- <təvis-> 'violence' -- <tvə̄m-> 'you' -- [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   -- <θwa> 'you' -- [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   -- <θwaxša-> 'zeal, care, nurture' -- <θwarōz> 'carve, fashion, shape, create' -- <θwōrəšṯar> 'Fashioner' -- [Pokorny tu̯erk̑- :: to cut]   -- <dā-> 'give, put' -- <dāman-> 'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)' -- <dāmi-> 'creation' -- <daēnā-> 'attitude, intention, insight' -- [Pokorny dhei̯ə- : dhi̯ā- : dhī- :: to look, see, show]   -- <daēva-> 'divine being' -- [Pokorny 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   -- <dan̨hah-> 'skillful' -- [Pokorny 1. dens- :: to learn; mental power]   -- <dafšnya-> 'powerless' -- <dab> 'fit together' (?) -- <darəga-> 'long' -- [Pokorny 5. del- :: long]   -- <darəs-> 'wantoness, rage, fury' -- <darəsata-> 'visible, beautiful to see' -- <dah-> 'gift' -- <dahyav-> 'country, region, realm' -- <dugədar-> 'daughter' -- [Pokorny dhug(h)əter- :: daughter]   -- <duš-> 'bad, evil' -- [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   -- <duždā-> 'of bad gifts, maleficent' -- [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   -- <dužvarena-> 'choosing badly' -- [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   -- <dužvarešnah-> 'wrong-doers' -- [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   -- <dəjit-> 'violation' (?) -- <dəbaoman-> 'beguilement, deception' -- <dərəz-> 'shackle' -- [Pokorny 2. dher-, dherə- :: to hold, support]   -- <draoga-> 'lie, deceive' -- [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   -- <drav-> 'wood' -- <drigu-> 'needy, poor' -- <drug-> 'false' -- <druj-> 'deceit' -- [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   -- <drəgvant-> 'possessor of the Lie' -- <drvatāt-> 'health, vitality' -- <dvaesa-> 'hatred' -- [Pokorny du̯ei- :: to fear]   -- <dvafša-> 'distress, ruin, pain, anguish' -- <dvar> 'rush together' -- <naēda> 'not, nor' -- <naman-> 'reverence' -- <nar-> 'man' -- [Pokorny 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, əner-? :: vital force; man]   -- <narəpi-> 'reduction, absence' -- <nas> 'be lost, disappear' -- [Pokorny nek̑- :: death, dying, necrosis; corpse]   -- <ni> 'down' -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <nī> '...' -- <nitəma-> 'lowest' -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <nivāiti-> 'striking down' -- <nū> 'now' -- [Pokorny nū̆- :: now]   -- <nōiṯ> 'no, none' -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <nmāna-> 'abode, house' -- [Pokorny dem-, demə- :: to build, timber; house, domicile]   -- <paiti> 'near, toward, with respect to' -- <paiti-> 'husband, master' -- [Pokorny poti-s :: host, husband, lord, master, owner]   -- <paityāstī-> 'firm foundation' -- <pairi> 'around, among' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <paurvat-> 'mountain' -- <paouruya-> 'first, original' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <paθ-> 'path, road' -- [Pokorny pent- :: to go, walk, pad, tread; way, path]   -- <paθana-> 'spacious' -- [Pokorny 1. pet-, pet-, petə- :: to stretch out (esp. arms)]   -- <parā> 'before, beyond, away' -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <param> 'far, away, opposite, across' -- <pitar-> 'father' -- [Pokorny pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és :: father]   -- <piθa-> 'defense' -- <peša-> 'brought to an end' -- <pouru-> 'many' -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <pouru-> 'wide' -- <Pourucistā-> 'Pouruchista' (?) -- <pərəθu-> 'wide, broad' -- [Pokorny plā̆t-, plā̆d-, plē̆t-, plō̆t-, plət- :: flat, wide, broad; spread out]   -- <pərəs-> 'ask' -- <Ferašaoštra-> 'Frashaostra' -- <fəraša-> 'shining' -- <fra> 'forward, toward' -- <frāidi-> 'growth, prosperity' -- <frāxšnəna-> 'concern' -- <fraorəṯ> 'readily' -- <frajyāiṯi> 'life's possibility' -- <fratarəm> 'opposite' -- <fradaxštā-> 'guiding, instructive' -- <fravāxš-> 'stalk, branch, penis' -- <fravaši-> the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity -- <fras> 'inquire, discuss' -- <frasā-> 'question, inquiry' -- [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   -- <frasparak-> 'sprout' -- <frazanti-> 'progeny, offspring' -- <frī> 'devote' -- <fsuya-> 'breed (esp. cattle)' -- <bāδa> 'true, reliable' -- [Pokorny 2. bhē̆, bhō̆ :: (emphatic particle)]   -- <baēvara-> 'ten-thousand' -- <baēšaza-> 'remedy, poison' -- <baēšazya-> 'generative, curative' -- <baoiδi-> 'smell' -- <baγa-> 'god, deity' -- <banaya-> 'poison, make ill' -- <band-> 'shine' (?) -- <bar> 'bear, carry' -- [Pokorny ati, ato- :: over, beyond]   -- <barana-> 'carriage, support' -- <barəθri-> 'mother, womb' -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <barəša-> 'neck, back' -- <barəsman-> grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice -- [Pokorny 3. bhel-, bhlē- :: to grow, spread, swell, inflate]   -- <barəz> 'high, exalted, loud' -- <baršnu-> 'high point, peak' -- <bu> 'be, become' -- <būna-> 'ground, base' -- <bud> 'be attentive, aware' -- <bərət> 'cry' (?) -- <bərəz-> 'be high, elevated' -- [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   -- <bərəzant-> 'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear' -- [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   -- <ma-> 'my' -- [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   -- <mā> used to express prohibition -- [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   -- <mąθra-> 'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention' -- <maiδyah-> 'madness-inducing' -- <mainyu-> 'spirit' -- <mairišṯa-> 'knowing/remembering best' -- <mairya-> 'false, malicious' -- [Pokorny 2. mel- :: to deceive]   -- <maēγa-> 'cloud' -- [Pokorny meigh-, also meik- :: to flicker, twinkle; mist]   -- <maēδa-> 'changing, false' -- <maga-> 'gift' -- <maθra-> 'mantra, magic formula' -- <maδa-> 'intoxication' -- [Pokorny mad- :: to drip; wet; fat, glossy, well-fed]   -- <man> 'know, think' -- <manah-> 'mind' -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   -- <manahya-> 'spiritual' -- <marək-> 'kill, destroy, bring ruin' -- <marəta-> 'mortal' -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <mašya-> 'human being' -- <maz-> 'large, great' -- [Pokorny meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-]   -- <mazda-> 'wise one' -- [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   -- <mazdā-> 'wise' -- [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   -- <mazdāδa-> 'thing to be considered' -- [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   -- <mīzda-> 'wages, prize' -- [Pokorny mizdhó- :: fee, pay, meed, reward]   -- <miθ> 'rob of' -- <miθra-> 'contract, agreement, pact' -- [Pokorny 4. mei- :: to tie, bind]   -- <Miθra-> 'Mithra' -- <mošu> 'soon' -- [Pokorny mok̑s, Indo-Iranian *mok̑sū̆ :: soon]   -- <mərəγa-> 'forest animal, bird' -- <mərəthyu-> 'death' -- [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   -- <mru> 'drive, plunge, beat' -- <mrū> 'speak, say' -- <mrc> 'destroy' -- <ya-> 'who, what, which' -- <yāh-> 'pilgrimage, retribution' -- <yaoti-> 'pasture' -- <yaṯ> 'when' -- <yaθa> 'just as, like' -- <yaθra> 'where, in order to' -- <yadā> 'when' -- [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   -- <yam> 'offer' -- [Pokorny i̯em- :: to hold, match, defeat, geminate; twin]   -- <yav-> 'duration, period, time of life' -- [Pokorny 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g- :: to yoke, join, tie together]   -- <yavaṯ> 'how long, as long as' -- <yavan-> 'during life' -- [Pokorny 3. i̯eu- :: young]   -- <yasna-> 'sacrifice, offering, hymn' -- [Pokorny i̯ag- :: to worship, venerate]   -- <yaz> 'sacrifice, offer' -- <yazu-> 'youngest' -- <yūžəm-> 'you' -- [Pokorny 1. i̯u- :: you (plural)]   -- <yuj> 'join, unite, yoke' -- [Pokorny 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g- :: to yoke, join, tie together]   -- <yesnya-> 'sacrifice, worship' -- [Pokorny i̯ag- :: to worship, venerate]   -- <yezī> 'as, because, when' -- <yə̄ma-> 'twin' -- [Pokorny i̯em- :: to hold, match, defeat, geminate; twin]   -- <rāta-> 'gift' -- <rāthəma-> 'adhering to' -- <rāθ> 'adhere' -- <rāda-> 'provider' -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <rāman-> 'peace, tranquility' -- [Pokorny rem-, remə- :: to rest; to support]   -- <rai-> 'radiance, wealth, splendor' -- <raēθa-> 'rush upon, mix with' -- <raocah-> 'light' -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <raod> 'grow, sprout' -- <rajī-> 'darkness' -- <ratu-> 'judgement, model, plan' -- <raθa-> 'chariot' -- [Pokorny ret(h)- :: to run, roll, rotate]   -- <rašah-> 'harm, damage' -- [Pokorny rek̑þh- :: to harm, injure]   -- <ru> 'flow' -- <ruθma-> 'growth, increase' -- <rud> 'howl, cry out, lament' -- <rəma-> 'bloodlust, violence, chains' -- <vā> 'indeed, for, etc.' -- [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   -- <vāc-> 'voice' -- <vādāya-> 'destroy' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯edh- :: to hit, push]   -- <vāra-> 'rain' -- <vāstar-> 'herdsman' -- <vāstrya-> 'herdsman; pasture' -- <vaēda-> 'provider' -- <vaēδayana-> 'attainment, discovery, acquisition' -- <vaēna-> 'see, observe, look' -- <vaēm-> 'we' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ē̆-, u̯ei- :: we two (dual), we (plural)]   -- <vaēšah-> 'poison' -- [Pokorny 3. u̯eis- :: to flow (away); ooze, virus, poison]   -- <vak> 'say, speak, declare' -- [Pokorny u̯ek- :: to voice, speak, evoke]   -- <vaxəδra-> 'speech organ' -- <vaxš> 'grow' -- <vaxšaya-> 'cause to grow' -- <vacah-> 'speech, word' -- [Pokorny u̯ek- :: to voice, speak, evoke]   -- <vat-> 'like' -- <-vat-> '...' -- <vadman-> (?) 'possessed of speech' -- <van> 'surpass, overcome' -- <vanta-> 'praise, homage' -- <vafu-> 'prophecy, teaching, solemn words' -- <vaȳxana-> 'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled' -- <vayu-> 'air, wind' (?) -- <vayoi> 'woe' -- [Pokorny u̯ai :: woe; wolf]   -- <var> 'choose' -- [Pokorny 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   -- <varav-> 'wide, broad' -- <varəz-> 'work, perform' -- [Pokorny 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑- :: to do, work, be effective]   -- <varšak-> 'root, tree' -- <vas> 'desire, wish' -- <vas> 'be clothed, swathed' -- <vasəiti-> 'liberty, prosperity' -- <vaz> 'marry' -- <vahma-> 'glorification, praise' -- <vahmaya-> 'worthy of praise' -- <vahya-> 'better' -- [Pokorny u̯ē̆su- :: good]   -- <vi> 'wide, apart' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <vīciδa-> 'decision, judgement' -- <vīcira-> 'discerning' -- <Vīštāspa-> 'Vishtaspa' -- <vīspa-> 'all, every' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <vīzxvanca> 'in every direction' (?) -- <vid> 'see, know, obtain' -- [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   -- <vis> 'find' -- <vispa-> 'everyone/thing, all' -- [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   -- <viž-> 'clan' -- <verəz-> 'perform an action' -- <vohu-> 'good' -- [Pokorny u̯ē̆su- :: good]   -- <vərəθra-> 'attack, victory' -- [Pokorny 5. u̯er- :: to shut, close, cover; guard, warn, save]   -- <vərən-> 'choose' -- <vərəz> 'do, make, perform' -- <vərəzyah-> 'working, productive' -- <vyāna-> 'insight, perception' -- [Pokorny 3. u̯ei-, u̯eiə- : u̯ī- :: to wish, pursue, go for, reach towards; strong, violent]   -- <šava-> 'drive forth, set in motion' -- <ši> 'dwell' -- <šyaoθana-> 'act, deed' -- [Pokorny kēi- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <sāxvan-> 'doctrine, teaching, instruction' -- [Pokorny k̑ās-, k̑əs- :: to teach, show the way]   -- <sāsnā-> 'teaching' -- [Pokorny k̑ās-, k̑əs- :: to teach, show the way]   -- <saošyant-> 'giving power; savior (?)' -- <saxvār-> 'invocation, poetically formulated vow' -- <saŋh> 'announce, proclaim' -- <sac> 'learn, understand' -- <sata-> 'hundred' -- <sand> 'show, seem' -- <sar-> 'protection, alliance' -- [Pokorny k̑erə-, k̑rā- :: to cook]   -- <sareδa-> 'kind, sort, species' -- [Pokorny k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā :: line, row, herd]   -- <sava-> 'benefit, salvation' -- <sūca-> 'light, pure, clear' -- <sūra-> 'strong, powerful' -- [Pokorny 1. k̑eu-, k̑eu̯ə- : k̑ū-, k̑u̯ā- :: to swell]   -- <skənda-> 'destruction' -- [Pokorny (s)k(h)ed-, (s)k(h)e-n-d- :: to crush, shatter, split to pieces]   -- <stā> 'stand, stay, remain' -- <staota-> 'hymn, song of praise' -- <stavana-> 'praising, being praised' -- <stu> 'praise, laud, extol, celebrate' -- <stūiti-> 'song of praise, prayer' -- [Pokorny 2. steu- :: to praise (aloud)]   -- <stra-> 'spread-out' (?) -- <spaxšti-> 'vision' -- <spayaθra-> 'atonement, prosperity' -- <spas-̨ spašu-> (?) 'perceive' -- [Pokorny spek̑- :: to watch, inspect, spy on]   -- <Spitāma-> 'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra) -- <spənta-> 'beneficent, holy, sacred' -- [Pokorny k̑u̯en- :: to celebrate; saint]   -- <spərəd-> 'zeal' -- [Pokorny sp(h)erd(h)-, (s)p(h)red(h)-, nasalized sp(h)rend(h)- :: to rush, sprint, spring; running]   -- <srāvay-> 'cause to be heard' -- <sravas-> 'fame' -- <sru> 'hear, listen' -- <sru> 'give' -- <zā> 'abandon, relinquish' -- <zā> 'conquer, win, come in first' -- <zāvar-> 'strength, vitality, vigor' -- [Pokorny g̑eu-, g̑eu̯ə-, also geu̯ə- :: to hurry, promote]   -- <zairi-> 'yellow' -- <zaoθra-> 'libations' -- [Pokorny 1. g̑heu- :: to gush, pour, found]   -- <zan> 'bear, give birth' -- <zam-> 'earth, ground' -- [Pokorny g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   -- <Zaraθuštra-> 'Zarathustra' -- [Pokorny 3. u̯es- :: to ooze, dampen; wet]   -- <zaraθuštri-> 'descendent of Zarathustra' (?) -- [Pokorny 3. u̯es- :: to ooze, dampen; wet]   -- <zava-> 'call, request' -- <zasta-> 'hand' -- [Pokorny g̑hesto- :: arm, hand]   -- <zahya-> 'weakened' -- <zi> 'for, indeed' -- [Pokorny ghe-, gho- :: (enclitic (emphatic?) particle)]   -- <zrazdišta-> 'most believing' -- <ha-> '(s)he, this' -- [Pokorny so(s), sā :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   -- <ha-> 'you' -- <haiθya-> 'true, real' -- [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   -- <haēcaṯ-> '...' -- <haoma-> plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant -- <hak> 'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of' -- <haxti-> 'thigh' -- [Pokorny (s)keng- :: to hobble; lame, slanted]   -- <haŋhuš-> 'profit, harvest' -- <haca-> 'follow, accompany' (?) -- <hacā> 'from, out of' -- [Pokorny 1. sek- :: to segue, follow]   -- <haθra> 'together, at the same place/time' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hadā> 'together with' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <(hapax) krd> 'send' (?) -- <ham> 'together' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hamərəθa> 'enemy' -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <haraitī-> name of a mountain -- [Pokorny 2. ser- :: to serve, guard, protect, shelter]   -- <havana-> 'pressing stone' -- <haza-> 'power, violence, oppression' -- <hazaoša-> 'like-minded' -- <hazara-> 'thousand' -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <hi> 'indeed' -- <hita-> 'team of horses' -- <hišāy-> 'bind, tie up' -- <hizu-> 'tongue' -- [Pokorny dn̥g̑hū, dn̥g̑hu̯ā :: tongue]   -- <hu> 'well, good, beautiful' -- [Pokorny su-, sū- :: good, well]   -- <hūiti-> 'pressure' -- <huxšaθra-> 'good rule' -- <hudānu-> 'blessed' -- <hudah-> 'of good gifts, beneficent' -- <hudəma-> 'sweetness' -- <humązdra-> 'careful, good to see' -- <hušiti-> 'good dwelling, comfort, safety' -- <hušə̄na-> 'profitable' -- <həm> '...' -- <hə̄m> 'together, with' -- <hyat> 'as, since, because' -- <hyaṯ> 'if, so, when' -- <hva-> 'this' -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <hvaŋhaoya-> 'good existence' -- <hvar-> 'sun' --

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