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Norse: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<a> not -- <á> river -- <á> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- [Pokorny 4. an-, anu, anō, nō :: on, along, over there]   -- <á flot> afloat -- <áðr> before, first; until -- [Pokorny ētro- :: quick, swift, hurried]   -- <ágirni> greed -- <Ái> Ai, Great-grandfather -- [Pokorny au̯o-s :: maternal grandfather]   -- <ákaft> greatly -- <Álfr> Alf, Elf -- [Pokorny albho- :: white, albino]   -- <ámáttr> terrible, loathsome -- <ámáttugr> tremendously or overwhelmingly powerful; fearsome; loathesome -- <Án> An -- [Pokorny ē̆neu, ē̆nu :: without]   -- <Ánarr> Anar -- <ár> year; (good) season -- [Pokorny 1. ei- :: to go, exit]   -- <ár> early, in the early morning; of yore, long ago -- [Pokorny ā̆ier-, ā̆ien- :: day(light), morning]   -- <áreið> cavalry charge -- <áss> god -- [Pokorny ansu-, ṇsu- :: ghost, spirit, demon]   -- <ástugr> loving, benevolent -- <átta> eight -- [Pokorny ok̑tō(u) :: eight, octad]   -- <áttrœðr> eighty years old -- [Pokorny ok̑tō(u) :: eight, octad]   -- <Adam> Adam -- <Aðalsteinn> Athalstan, king of England -- <af> out of, from; with; concerning; because of -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <afl> hearth, fireplace or chimney of a forge -- <afl> strength -- [Pokorny apelo- :: strength]   -- <afráð> payment, tribute; heavy penalty or toll -- <afrœkjask (kt)> neglect -- <afskræmiliga> hideously -- <af_því_at> because, for -- <ala> give birth to, bear; feed -- [Pokorny 2. al- :: to grow, nourish, enhance]   -- <albryniaðr> all clad in mail, in a byrnie -- <aldartal> count of time, age -- <aldgregi, aldri> never -- <allharðr> severe, violent -- <alllítill> very little -- <allmikill> very great -- <allr> all, whole; every -- <almáttigr> almighty -- <Alþiófr> Althjof, Great-thief -- <anddyri> vestibule of hall -- <angan> delight, joy -- <Angantýr> Angantyr -- <annarr> other, another; second, next; one (of two) -- [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   -- <aptann> evening -- [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   -- <aptr> back; aft -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <arfr> inheritance -- [Pokorny orbho- :: weak, abandoned; slave, orphan]   -- <Arinbjǫrn> Arinbjorn -- <Arngrímr> Arngrim -- <askr> ash tree; spear; Ash -- [Pokorny *ōs, ōs-i-s, ō̆s-en-, os-k- :: ash (tree)]   -- <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- [Pokorny 1. ad- :: at, by, to]   -- <at> not -- [Pokorny 1. ad- :: at, by, to]   -- <at> that -- [Pokorny 1. ad- :: at, by, to]   -- <atall> fierce, terrible -- [Pokorny 2. od- :: hatred, disgust, odium, aversion]   -- <atferð> behavior; energy -- <atgeirr> thrusting spear -- <atrið> movement -- <atseta> residence -- <at_því_er> how; as -- <auðigr> wealthy, rich -- [Pokorny 5. au̯-, au̯ē- :: to plait, weave]   -- <auðna (að)> (impers.) fall out by fate -- [Pokorny 5. au̯-, au̯ē- :: to plait, weave]   -- <auðr> wealth, riches, treasure; precious objects -- [Pokorny 5. au̯-, au̯ē- :: to plait, weave]   -- <auga> eye -- <augabragð> wink, sidelong glance -- <auka> to increase, add -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <auki> increase -- [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   -- <aurvangar> damp or muddy fields -- <Aurvangr> Aurvang, Mudfield -- <ausa> ladle; pour; water; (mid.) stream, flow -- [Pokorny aus- :: to draw (water); scoop, ladle]   -- <austan> from the east; east (of); bearing to the east -- [Pokorny au̯es- :: to shine]   -- <austmaðr> Easterner, Norwegian -- [Pokorny au̯es- :: to shine]   -- <Austri> East -- [Pokorny au̯es- :: to shine]   -- <báðir> both -- <bál> fire -- [Pokorny 1. bhel-, Balto-Slavic also bhelə- :: glittering white]   -- <Bávǫrr> Bavor -- <baðmr> tree -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <bagall> episcopal staff, crozier -- <bak> back -- <bana (að)> kill -- <banamaðr> slayer -- <bani> death; cause of death, slayer -- [Pokorny bhen- :: to hit, wound]   -- <banna (að)> prohibit, forbid -- [Pokorny 2. bhā- :: to speak]   -- <barn> child -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <baugr> ring; coil -- <bautarsteinn> memorial stone -- <bein> bone; ivory -- <beinahrúga> heap of bones -- <bekkr> bench -- [Pokorny bhog- :: beck, flowing water]   -- <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <berja (barði)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- [Pokorny 3. bher- :: to bore, cut, scrape, use sharp tool]   -- <berja (barði, bariðr)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- [Pokorny 3. bher- :: to bore, cut, scrape, use sharp tool]   -- <berserkr> berserk -- <betr> better; more -- [Pokorny bhā̆d- :: good, better]   -- <betri> better -- [Pokorny bhā̆d- :: good, better]   -- <beztr> best -- [Pokorny bhā̆d- :: good, better]   -- <bíta> bite, cut -- [Pokorny bheid- :: to bite, prick, pierce, split]   -- <Bívǫrr> Bivor -- <biða (að)> await -- [Pokorny 1. bheidh- :: to force; advise, confide, encourage]   -- <biðja> ask; beg; pray; bid -- [Pokorny 2. bhedh- :: to flex, bend, crook]   -- <bifask (ð, að)> tremble; move; march -- <bikkja> bitch, dog -- <biǫð> land -- <biskup> bishop -- <bjalla> bell -- [Pokorny 6. bhel- :: to speak, bell, bellow, resound]   -- <bjarg> rock; mountain -- [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   -- <bjóða> offer, provide; command, summon -- [Pokorny bheudh-, nasalized bhu-n-dh- :: to awaken, be aware]   -- <bjǫð> land(s), (pl.) fields -- <Bláinn> Blain -- <blár> blue; black -- [Pokorny bhlē-u̯o-s :: a light color (blue, yellow)]   -- <blanda (blett, -að)> blend, mix -- [Pokorny bhlendh- :: dim, pale, blond, reddish]   -- <blesóttr> having a white blaze on the forehead -- [Pokorny bhles- :: to shine, glitter]   -- <blindr> blind -- [Pokorny bhlendh- :: dim, pale, blond, reddish]   -- <blóð> blood -- <blóm> flower -- [Pokorny 4. bhel-, and bhlē-, bhlō-, bhlə- :: leaf, foil, blade; bloom]   -- <bók> book -- [Pokorny bhāgó-s :: beech (tree)]   -- <bóndason> son of a farmer, son of a yeoman -- <bóndi> yeoman, franklin; husband -- <bót> compensation, atonement -- [Pokorny bhā̆d- :: good, better]   -- <Bǫðvarr> battle, Bothvar -- [Pokorny 1. bhedh- :: to dig, stab, pierce, embed]   -- <Bǫmburr> Bombur -- <boðorð> commandment -- <bokki> buck; fellow -- [Pokorny bhū̆g̑o-s, familiar form bhukko-s :: buck, goat]   -- <borðveggr> board wall, wall made of planks -- <borg> castle, fortress; funeral pyre -- <bráðr> hasty, impatient -- [Pokorny 2. bher- :: to boil, swell, well up]   -- <bragða (að)> move, stir -- [Pokorny bherək̑-, bhrēk̑- :: to shine, glitter]   -- <braka (að)> crack, creak -- [Pokorny 1. bhreg̑- :: to break]   -- <brandr> piece of firewood -- [Pokorny bhrēi-, bhrī̆- :: to fray, pierce, cut with sharp tool]   -- <braut> road -- [Pokorny 1. bhrē̆u-, bhrū̆- :: to break, cut, pierce]   -- <bregða> move quickly; throw; draw (sword) -- [Pokorny bherək̑-, bhrēk̑- :: to shine, glitter]   -- <brenna> (intrans.) burn, be on fire -- [Pokorny bh(e)reu- : bh(e)rū̆- :: to brew, boil, surge, be wild]   -- <brenna (d)> (trans.) burn, light, set on fire -- [Pokorny bh(e)reu- : bh(e)rū̆- :: to brew, boil, surge, be wild]   -- <Brimir> sword; (name of a sword); (name of a giant) -- <brjóst> breast -- <brjóta> (trans.) break, destroy; distribute; (mid.) exert oneself -- <bróðir> brother -- [Pokorny bhrā́ter- :: brother, family member]   -- <brǫkon> clashing -- <brotna (að)> (intrans.) break, be broken -- <brúðr> bride, young married woman; wife -- <brúnáss> ridge-beam -- <brunnr> burn, spring, well -- <brynja> coat of mail -- <brynjulauss> without mail, unprotected -- <búa> be ready, prepare, secure -- [Pokorny bheu-, bheu̯ə-, bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē- : bhō̆u- : bhū- :: to be, exist; grow, prosper]   -- <buðlungr> king, prince -- <bughr> curve -- <burðr> birth -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <Burr> Bur, Odin's father -- <bygð> dwelling, settlement -- <byggja (gð)> dwell, settle; build, inhabit -- [Pokorny bheu-, bheu̯ə-, bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē- : bhō̆u- : bhū- :: to be, exist; grow, prosper]   -- <byrðr> burden, load -- [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   -- <bæði> both -- <bœgr> shoulder -- [Pokorny bhāg̑hú-s :: elbow, forearm]   -- <bœr> farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town -- <dagr> day -- [Pokorny ā̆g̑her-, ā̆g̑hen-, ā̆g̑hes-, or ō̆g̑her etc. :: day, dawn]   -- <dalr> dale, dell, valley -- [Pokorny 1. dhel-, dholo- :: curve; dell, hollow]   -- <dauðr> death -- [Pokorny 2. dheu-, dhu̯-ēi- :: to die, faint, vanish]   -- <dauðr> dead -- [Pokorny 2. dheu-, dhu̯-ēi- :: to die, faint, vanish]   -- <daufr> deaf -- [Pokorny 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <deila (d)> divide; distinguishk quarrel, contend -- [Pokorny dā : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆- :: to share, divide]   -- <deili> (pl.) details -- [Pokorny dā : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆- :: to share, divide]   -- <detta> drop, fall -- [Pokorny 3. dhen- :: to hit, ding, push, thrust]   -- <deyja> die, pass away -- [Pokorny 2. dheu-, dhu̯-ēi- :: to die, faint, vanish]   -- <digr> big, stout; thick; deep -- [Pokorny dheig̑h- :: to build, knead clay]   -- <djarfr> bold, daring -- [Pokorny dherebh- :: to harden; coagulated]   -- <djúpr> deep -- [Pokorny dheu-b-, dheu-p- :: deep, hollow]   -- <Dólgþrasir> Dolgthrasir -- <dóttir> daughter -- [Pokorny dhug(h)əter- :: daughter]   -- <dǫgg> (sg. and pl.) dew -- [Pokorny 1. dheu- :: to flow, run]   -- <dǫuðarorð> tidings of death -- <draga> draw, haul -- [Pokorny dherāgh- :: to drag, pull]   -- <draugr> undead man, ghost -- [Pokorny 2. dher-, dherə- :: to hold, support]   -- <Draupnir> Draupnir -- <dreifa (ð)> scatter (dat.); besprinkle (acc.) -- <drekka> drink -- [Pokorny dhreg̑- :: to pull]   -- <drekkja (kt)> drown (dat.) -- <drengr> (gallant) fellow; warrior -- [Pokorny 2. dher-, dherə- :: to hold, support]   -- <drengskapr> nobility, courage -- <drepa> smite, strike; knock; kill, slay -- [Pokorny dhrebh- :: to drub, crush, grind to pieces]   -- <drífa> drive; crowd, throng; rush -- [Pokorny dhreibh- :: to drive, push, thrust]   -- <drjúgr> lasting, ample, substantial -- <dróttinn> leader of the host, lord -- [Pokorny 2. dher-, dherə- :: to hold, support]   -- <drykkr> draught, drink -- <duga> help, aid, be of avail, be of assistance -- [Pokorny dheugh- :: to milk, press, touch]   -- <dul> reserve, folly; conceit -- [Pokorny 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <duna> thunderous noise -- <Durinn> Durin -- <Dvalinn> Dvalin, Delayer -- <dveljask (dvalðisk)> stay; be delayed -- <dvergr> dwarf -- [Pokorny dhu̯ergh- : drugh- :: crippled, dwarf-like, low in stature]   -- <dýr> (wild) animal -- [Pokorny dheu̯es-, dhu̯ē̆s-, dheus-, dhū̆s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <dýrr> dear, expensive; precious -- <dylja (dulði)> keep on in ignorance of; (mid.) deceive oneself -- [Pokorny 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <dyrr> door, doorway -- [Pokorny dhu̯ē̆r-, dhu̯ō̆r-, dhur-, dhu̯r̥- :: door]   -- <dys> grave -- [Pokorny dheu̯es-, dhu̯ē̆s-, dheus-, dhū̆s- :: to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.]   -- <dæll> gentle, easy (to manage) -- <Eadmundr> Eadmund -- <eða> or; and; but -- <eðli> nature, characteristic(s) -- <ef> if; whether; (to see) if; lest -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <efstr> uppermost, highest -- <egg> edge -- [Pokorny 2. ak̑-, ok̑- :: sharp, acute, angular; stone]   -- <eggja (að)> urge, whet -- [Pokorny 2. ak̑-, ok̑- :: sharp, acute, angular; stone]   -- <Egill> Egil -- <eiga> own, have, possess; have in marriage; have the power to; have claim to; have duty to -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <eigi> not -- [Pokorny aiu̯-, ai̯u- :: vitality, life force]   -- <eigi_at_síðr> nontheless -- <eigna (að)> take possession of -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <eignask (að)> gain possession of, get for oneself -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <eigu> possession -- [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   -- <eik> oak; tree; ship -- [Pokorny 2. aig- :: oak]   -- <Eikinskialdi> Eikinskjald, Oakenshield -- <Eilífr> Eilif -- <einga> only -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <einn> one; a certain, particular -- <einn> one -- <einnhverr> a certain, some, any -- <einráðinn> resolved -- <Eiríkr> Eirik -- <eitr> poison -- [Pokorny oid- :: to swell; strong]   -- <ek> I -- <ekki> not, by no means -- [Pokorny 1. aig-, nasalized ing- :: ill, sick; depressed, dispirited]   -- <eldr> fire -- [Pokorny ai-dh-, i-dh-, nasalized i-n-dh- :: to burn, shine]   -- <eljun> endurance -- <elli> old age -- <elligar> otherwise -- [Pokorny 1. al-, ol- :: beyond; other, alien]   -- <elska (að)> love -- [Pokorny 2. al- :: to grow, nourish, enhance]   -- <Embla> Embla -- <Emma> Emma -- <en> but, and; than -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <endrþaga> silence in return, reciprocated silence -- <engi> no, none, no one -- <Englakonungr> king of the Angles -- <England> England -- <Englar> Angles, the English -- <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   -- <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <er> who, which; when -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <er> who, which -- [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   -- <Eva> Eve -- <ey> island -- [Pokorny akā-, more accurately əkā, ēk- :: aqua, water, river]   -- <ey> forever; always -- <eybarmr> surface of an island -- [Pokorny akā-, more accurately əkā, ēk- :: aqua, water, river]   -- <eyða (dd)> lay waste -- <Eyfura> Eyfura -- <eyjarskeggi> inhabitant of an island -- [Pokorny akā-, more accurately əkā, ēk- :: aqua, water, river]   -- <eyra> ear -- [Pokorny 2. ōus- : əus- : us- :: ear]   -- <eyrir> ounce of silver -- <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- [Pokorny pā̆k̑-, and pā̆g̑- :: to repair, strengthen]   -- <fá (ð)> color -- [Pokorny 1. peig-, and peik- :: colored, speckled]   -- <fár> mischief, malice -- [Pokorny 2e. per- :: to dare, risk, try; peril, danger]   -- <fár> few -- [Pokorny pōu- : pəu- : pū̆- :: few, small, little; young (of animals)]   -- <faðir> father -- [Pokorny pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és :: father]   -- <fagna (að)> be glad; rejoice at, welcome -- [Pokorny 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑- :: to be joyful, make pretty]   -- <fagr (ran)> fair, beautiful -- [Pokorny 1. pek̑-, pēk̑-, pōk̑- :: to be joyful, make pretty]   -- <fall> fall -- <falla> fall, fall down; flow; be slain -- [Pokorny phō̆l- :: to fall]   -- <fang> grasp, hold; breast; wrestling, contest; catch; provisions -- <far> track, subject; conduct, deeds; condition -- <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- [Pokorny 2b. per-, perə- :: to fare, ferry, transport, go/carry over]   -- <fararleyfi> leave to depart -- <fast> fast, strongly, hard; certainly -- <fastr> firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous -- [Pokorny pasto- :: firm, fast, solid]   -- <fé> cattle; sheep; money; possessions -- [Pokorny 2. pek̑- :: to fleece; fee, cattle]   -- <féhirðir> herdsman -- <feikinstafir> (pl.) curses -- <fela> hide; make over, commend -- [Pokorny 3b. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to wrap, cover; cloth; fell, pelt]   -- <feldr> cloak -- [Pokorny 3a. pel- :: to fold]   -- <fen> bog, fen -- [Pokorny 2. pen-, pen-ko- :: mud, fen, swamp, water; wet]   -- <festa (t)> fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on -- <feta> step; proceed in, begin to -- [Pokorny 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d- :: foot]   -- <Fíli> Fili -- <fimbulþulr> mighty sage -- <fimm> five -- [Pokorny penke :: five, fifth]   -- <finna> find, meet; discover; notice; invent -- [Pokorny pent- :: to go, walk, pad, tread; way, path]   -- <Finnr> Finn -- <firar> (pl.) men, people -- [Pokorny perku-s :: oak]   -- <fjándmaðr> enemy -- <Fjalarr> Fjalar -- <fjall> mountain, fell -- [Pokorny peli-s-, pel-s- :: fell, rock]   -- <fjalltindr> mountain top -- [Pokorny peli-s-, pel-s- :: fell, rock]   -- <fjara> ebb-tide, fore-shore, beach -- <fjarri> far, far off; by no means -- <fjǫðr> feather -- [Pokorny 2. pet-, petə- : ptē-, ptō-, Hellenic ptā- :: to fall, tumble down]   -- <fjǫlði> multitude -- <fjǫlgask (að)> multiply -- <fjǫlmennask (t)> become peopled, full of people -- <fjǫr> life -- <fjǫtra (að)> fetter, bind -- <fláráðr> false, deceitful -- <fleiri> more; further, other -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <flestr> most -- <flet> boards of a hall used for seating -- [Pokorny plā̆t-, plā̆d-, plē̆t-, plō̆t-, plət- :: flat, wide, broad; spread out]   -- <fleygja (gð)> let something fly; shoot; hurl -- <fljóð> woman -- <fljótr> swift, fleeing -- <flóð> flood -- [Pokorny pleu- :: to flee, fly, run; flow, swim]   -- <flokkr> body of men; short lay -- <flúga> fly -- <fnǫsun> snorting, blowing out -- <fólcvíg> troop-slaying, battle (between armies), war -- <fólk> troop, host of warriors; men -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <fóstri> foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling -- <fótr> foot; leg -- [Pokorny 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d- :: foot]   -- <fǫðurbróðir> father's brother, uncle -- <fǫlna (að)> grow pale; fade -- <fǫr> journey, expedition -- [Pokorny 2b. per-, perə- :: to fare, ferry, transport, go/carry over]   -- <fold> earth, world -- [Pokorny pelə-, plā- :: plane, flat, wide, broad]   -- <forða (að)> save -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <forðum> formerly, some time ago -- <formælandi> supporter, advocate, speaker on one's behalf -- <forn> old, ancient -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <frá> from; concerning -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fráliga> swiftly -- <Frár> Frar -- <frásagnarverðr> worth relating -- <fram> forward, on; away; out -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <framan> from the front side; forward -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fregn> news, information -- <fregna> learn, hear of; ask -- [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   -- <freista (st)> try, make trial of; put to the test -- <frest> respite -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fríðr> handsome -- [Pokorny prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri- :: to like, feel friendly/well-disposed]   -- <friðr> peace -- [Pokorny prāi-, prəi-, prī-, pri- :: to like, feel friendly/well-disposed]   -- <frjósa> freeze -- [Pokorny preus- :: to burn, freeze]   -- <fróðr> wise, well-informed -- [Pokorny pret-, prō̆t- :: to understand]   -- <Frosti> Frosti, Frosty -- <Frægr> Fraeg -- <frændi> relative, kinsman -- <frœði> lore; history -- <fúinn> rotten, decayed -- [Pokorny 2. pū̆- : peu̯ə- :: to rot, stink]   -- <fugl> bird -- [Pokorny pleuk- :: floc, hair, feather]   -- <fullr> full; in full swing -- [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   -- <Fundinn> Fundin, Foundling -- <fundr> meeting; battle -- <furðuliga> terribly -- <fýsa (t)> urge, encourage; (impers.) desire -- <fylgja (gð)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- <fylking> battle array, host -- <fylkir> king -- <fylla (d)> fill; complete; increase -- <fyrðar> (pl.) men, people -- <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fyrr> before; first; until -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fyrst> first -- <fyrstr> first, foremost, earliest -- [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   -- <fyrtelia (-talða)> recount, recite -- <fæla (d)> frighten; (refl.) be frightened -- <færa> less -- <fœða (dd)> feed; nurse; rear, bring up -- <fœra (ð)> bring, send; hurl, smite; move; present -- <gátt> door-opening -- [Pokorny g̑hengh- :: to step, stride, march]   -- <gamall> old -- [Pokorny 2. g̑hei- : g̑hi- :: snow; winter]   -- <gaman> pleasure, entertainment -- <Gandálfr> Gandalf, Staff-elf -- <gandr> magic staff or spirit -- [Pokorny 2. ghen(-ə)- :: to hit, strike, fend]   -- <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- [Pokorny g̑hengh- :: to step, stride, march]   -- <gap> gap, gaping, chasm -- [Pokorny 2. g̑hē- : ghə-, and g̑hēi- : g̑hī- :: to gape, yawn]   -- <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- [Pokorny g̑herdh-, and gherdh- :: to gird, enclose, encompass]   -- <gaumr> heed, attention -- [Pokorny ghou̯(ē)- :: to gawk, be aware of, pay attention to]   -- <geð> disposition; mind; wits; sense; inclination -- [Pokorny ghedh- :: to ask, beg, wish for]   -- <gefa> give; give in marriage; (impers.) be obtainable -- [Pokorny ghabh- :: to take, grab, seize]   -- <gefandi> giver, host -- <gegna (d)> (dat.) be suitable for; mean, bode -- <geigr> serious injury -- [Pokorny 2. g̑hē- : ghə-, and g̑hēi- : g̑hī- :: to gape, yawn]   -- <geirr> spear; point of anvil -- [Pokorny g̑haiso-, or g̑həiso- : g̑hēiso- :: dart; staff, stick]   -- <Gellisson> son of Gellir -- <gera (ð)> do, perform; act; make, build; finish -- <gestr> guest -- [Pokorny ghosti-s :: guest, stranger]   -- <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- [Pokorny ghend-, and ghed- :: to get, grasp, seize]   -- <gildi> recompense, return; payment due, tribute, offerings or compensation -- [Pokorny ghel-tō, Germanic and ghel-dhō Slavic :: to cost, pay, be worth]   -- <Ginnarr> Ginnar, Betrayer -- <ginnheilagr> most holy, sacred -- <ginnregin> (pl.) mighty powers -- <ginnung> mighty space, abyss, void -- <gipt> gift -- <girnd> desire -- <gisting> night-lodging -- <Gizurr> Gizur -- <gjálfrmarr> steed of the sea, ship -- <gjald> payment; tax -- [Pokorny ghel-tō, Germanic and ghel-dhō Slavic :: to cost, pay, be worth]   -- <gjalda> repay, requite; pay compensation; give something as recompense for something; atone or pay for -- [Pokorny ghel-tō, Germanic and ghel-dhō Slavic :: to cost, pay, be worth]   -- <gjalda> pay, repay; redeem -- [Pokorny ghel-tō, Germanic and ghel-dhō Slavic :: to cost, pay, be worth]   -- <gjarna, gjarnan> willingly -- <gjǫf> gift -- <Glámr> Glam -- [Pokorny 1. g̑hel-, and ghel-?, also as i-, u-, or n-stem; g̑helə-, g̑hlē-, g̑hlō-, g̑hlə- :: to shine, glare, glow; gold, yellow, bright color]   -- <gleypa (t)> swallow -- <glíkligr> likely -- <Glói> Gloi, Glow -- <gluggr> window -- <gnógr> enough; plenty (of) -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <gnýr> clash, din -- [Pokorny ghen- :: to grind, crack open, gnaw to pieces]   -- <gnæfa (að)> to rise high, tower -- <góðr> good -- [Pokorny ghedh-, ghodh- :: to join, unite, gather, make a bond]   -- <gólf> floor -- <gǫrr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- [Pokorny gher- :: warm, hot]   -- <goði> chief (and priest) -- [Pokorny g̑hau-, g̑hau̯ə- :: to call]   -- <Goðvinasun> Gothvinasun -- <Gotar> Goths -- <gráta> weep -- [Pokorny 1. gher- :: (onomatopoeic: to snarl, rattle, etc.)]   -- <grafa> dig; engrave, inlay -- [Pokorny 2. ghrebh- :: to dig, grub, grave, scratch]   -- <gramr> king -- [Pokorny 2. ghrem- :: to grumble; resound, thunder]   -- <gras> grass, pasture; vegetation -- [Pokorny ghrē- : ghrō- : ghrə- :: to grow, become green]   -- <greiðliga> quickly, promptly -- <grein> branch, division; particular, detail -- <Grettir> Grettir -- <gríma> mask; shadow of night -- [Pokorny ghrēi- : ghrəi- : ghrī-, and lit. ghrei- :: to smear over]   -- <grið> (pl.) peace, protection -- [Pokorny 1. g̑her- :: to desire, yearn for]   -- <gróa> grow -- [Pokorny ghrē- : ghrō- : ghrə- :: to grow, become green]   -- <grund> ground, bottom; broad surface; surface of the earth, earth -- [Pokorny ghren- :: to grind, rub, stroke hard]   -- <grunr> suspicion -- [Pokorny ghren- :: diaphragm; mind, soul]   -- <grœnn> green -- <guð> god -- [Pokorny g̑hau-, g̑hau̯ə- :: to call]   -- <guðr> battle -- [Pokorny 2. ghen(-ə)- :: to hit, strike, fend]   -- <gull> gold -- [Pokorny 1. g̑hel-, and ghel-?, also as i-, u-, or n-stem; g̑helə-, g̑hlē-, g̑hlō-, g̑hlə- :: to shine, glare, glow; gold, yellow, bright color]   -- <gullhringr> gold ring -- [Pokorny 1. g̑hel-, and ghel-?, also as i-, u-, or n-stem; g̑helə-, g̑hlē-, g̑hlō-, g̑hlə- :: to shine, glare, glow; gold, yellow, bright color]   -- <Gullveig> Gullveig -- <gumi> man, human -- [Pokorny g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   -- <Gunnarr> Gunnar -- <Gunnhildr> Gunnhild -- <Gunnlǫð> Gunnlath -- <gægjask (ð)> bend forward to see, gaze, glare -- <gæta (tt)> attend to, tend, guard, watch over; keep watch -- <gætinn> wary, careful -- <gøra> make, build; write, compose -- <gørr> more fully -- <Hálfdanarson> son of Halfdan -- <hálfr> half -- [Pokorny 1. (s)kel- :: to cut, halve]   -- <Hánarr> Hanar -- <hár> tall, high; loud -- <hár> hair -- <Hár> Har, Greyhair -- [Pokorny 1. k̑er(s)- :: bristle, stiff hair]   -- <hárfagri> fair-haired -- <hárr> hoary, grey-haired, grey-bearded; (a name of Odin) -- <háski> danger, harm -- [Pokorny k̑enk-, k̑onk- :: to hang, sway, dangle]   -- <háttr> kind, type; (pl.) activity, habits, behavior -- [Pokorny 2. k̑ak-, k̑ek-? :: to help, enable]   -- <hafa (ð)> have, keep; hold; accept -- [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   -- <halda> hold; hold fast, grip; keep; steer; protect; last, hold good, remain -- [Pokorny 5. kel- :: to drive, compel, accelerate, move quickly]   -- <haldorðr> true of word -- <Hallgerðr> Hallgertha, Gunnar's wife -- <haltr> lame -- [Pokorny 3. kel-, kelə-, klā-, extended klād- :: to hit, hew, cut down]   -- <hamingja> luck -- <handarvanr> bereft of a hand, lacking a hand, one-armed -- <handleggr> arm; (pl.) upper arm and forearm -- [Pokorny 2. lek- : lek-, and lēk- : lək- :: joint, leg, body member; to bend, wind]   -- <hann> this one -- [Pokorny k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o- :: this; here]   -- <Haraldr> Harald -- <harðr> hard, severe, sharp -- [Pokorny 3. kar-, reduplicated karkar- :: hard]   -- <harðsnúinn> wll-knitt, staunch -- <harmr> sorrow, grief -- [Pokorny k̑ormo- :: harm, pain, torment, suffering]   -- <hart> hard; sharply -- <hata (að)> damage, destroy -- [Pokorny k̑ād- : k̑ədes- : k̑əd-s- :: hate, displeasure, uneasiness]   -- <Hattargriði> Hott's guardian -- <haugaeldr> fire from graves -- <haugbúi> ghost, undead man -- <haugr> mound; grave mound -- [Pokorny 2. keu-, keu̯ə- :: to bend]   -- <Haugspori> Haugspori, Mound-river -- <hauss> skull -- [Pokorny 2. (s)keu-, (s)keu̯ə : (s)kū- :: to hide, wrap, cover]   -- <haust> autumn -- <hér> here -- <heðan> from here, hence -- <heðinn> fur cloak, coat -- [Pokorny kadh- :: to guard, cover, protect]   -- <heðra> here, hither -- <hefja> lift, raise -- [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   -- <hefna (d)> avenge -- [Pokorny 1. kem- :: to squeeze, hem in, press together]   -- <hegri> heron -- [Pokorny 1. ker-, kor-, kr- :: (onomatopoeic: hoarse sound)]   -- <heiðinn> heathen -- [Pokorny kaito- :: chet, woods, forest]   -- <heiðr> bright, clear; Bright -- [Pokorny (s)kāi- :: bright, shining]   -- <Heiðrekr> Heithrek -- <heilagr> holy, sacred -- <heill> sound, safe; in health -- [Pokorny kai-lo-, kai-lu- :: bright; hale, whole, healthy]   -- <heill> good luck; good omen -- [Pokorny kai-lo-, kai-lu- :: bright; hale, whole, healthy]   -- <heim> home; to(wards) the house -- [Pokorny 2. pē̆d-, pō̆d- :: foot]   -- <heima> home; (as adv.) at home -- <Heimdallr> Heimdall, World-radiance -- [Pokorny 2. dhel- :: to light; shining]   -- <heimisgarðar> (pl.) courtyards of a house, homestead(s), premises -- <heimr> region; world -- [Pokorny 1. k̑ei- :: to lie, recline; camp, home]   -- <heimskr> foolish -- <heimta (mt)> claim -- <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- [Pokorny kēi- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <heldr> rather, any the more -- <helgrind> gate of hell -- <helzt> most willingly; most of all; exceedingly -- <Hepti> Hepti, Haft -- <herðar> (pl.) shoulders -- <herr> harrier, destroyer -- [Pokorny koro-s, kori̯o-s :: war, army, warrior]   -- <herra> lord -- <Hervarðr> Hervarth -- <Hervǫr> Hervor -- <hestr> stallion, horse -- [Pokorny 1. k̑āk- : k̑ək-, probably k̑ā[i]k- : k̑īk- :: to jump, spring out]   -- <heyra (ð)> hear, hear of -- [Pokorny 1. keu-, skeu-, lengthened grade kēu- :: to see, hear, observe, hearken, attend to]   -- <Hildr> Hildr, a valkyrie -- [Pokorny 3. kel-, kelə-, klā-, extended klād- :: to hit, hew, cut down]   -- <hilmir> chief, king -- <himinioðurr> rim of heaven, horizon or precinct of heaven, sky -- <himinn> heaven, sky -- [Pokorny 3. k̑em- :: to wrap, cover, conceal]   -- <hingat> hither -- <hinn> this one; that; the -- <hirða (ð)> keep; mind, care -- <hirðir> herdsman -- <hirðmaðr> retainer -- <hitta (tt)> hit upon; find, meet -- [Pokorny keid- :: to fall]   -- <hjá> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- <Hjálmarr> Hjalmar -- <hjálmr> helmet -- [Pokorny 4. k̑el- :: to hide, conceal]   -- <hjálpa> help -- [Pokorny k̑elb-, k̑elp- :: to help]   -- <hjaldr (rs)> battle -- [Pokorny 6. kel-, k(e)lē-, k(e)lā-, or kl̥̄-? :: to call, cry]   -- <hjalmstallr> the support of the helmet, i.e. the head -- <hjarta> heart -- <hjǫrð> herd, flock -- [Pokorny k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā :: line, row, herd]   -- <hjǫrr> sword -- [Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, (s)kerə-, (s)krē- :: to cut, shear, score, scribe]   -- <Hjǫrvarðr> Hjorvarth -- <hlaða> load; pile -- [Pokorny klā- :: to lade, place, heap up, lay down]   -- <hlaupa> leap, spring, climb; mount; run -- [Pokorny 1. ku̯elp-, ku̯elb- : ku̯l̥p/b- : klup/b- :: to stumble, buckle at the knees; to trot]   -- <Hlévangr> Hlevang, Lee-plain -- <Hleiðargarðr> Hleithargarth, Lejre -- <hlíf> cover, shelter; shield -- <hlífa (ð)> shelter, protect -- <hljóð> silence, hearing -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <hljóðr> silent, quiet -- [Pokorny 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū- :: to hear, listen]   -- <hlǫkk> clash; battle -- <hlǫm> crashing sound -- <hlutr> part, piece, thing -- [Pokorny klēu-, also klĕu-?, and klāu- :: hook, crook]   -- <hlýða (dd)> listen to, hear -- <hlýðni> obedience -- <hlæja> laugh -- [Pokorny klēg-, klōg-, kləg-, klang-, kleg-, klōg-, kleig-, kleik- :: to cry, shout, scream]   -- <hníga> sink; (ppart.) open -- [Pokorny knei-gh-, knei-b- :: to bow, kneel]   -- <hnoss> costly thing, ornament -- [Pokorny 2. ken-, kenə-, keni-, kenu- :: to rub, scrape, scratch off; ashes]   -- <hnykkja (ð, t)> pull violently -- [Pokorny 1. ken- :: to pinch, press, etc.]   -- <hǫfðinghlegr> princely -- <hǫfðingi> chief, ruler -- <hǫfuð> head; person -- [Pokorny kap-ut :: head]   -- <hǫfuð> head -- [Pokorny kap-ut :: head]   -- <hǫgg> stroke, blow -- <hǫll> hall -- [Pokorny 4. k̑el- :: to hide, conceal]   -- <hǫnd> hand, arm and hand; side, part -- <hǫrfa (að)> recoil, give way -- <hǫrgr> outdoor sanctuary, (stone) altar, temple -- [Pokorny 3. kar-, reduplicated karkar- :: hard]   -- <Hǫttr> Hott -- [Pokorny kadh- :: to guard, cover, protect]   -- <hof> farm, farmstead; temple -- [Pokorny 2. keu-, keu̯ə- :: to bend]   -- <hollr> loyal -- [Pokorny 2. k̑el- :: to bow, lean, incline]   -- <holr> hollow -- [Pokorny kau-l-, ku-l- :: hole, hollow; bone]   -- <horn> horn; drinking horn; corner -- [Pokorny 1. k̑er-, k̑erə- : k̑rā-, k̑erei-, k̑ereu- :: horn, head, upper part of body]   -- <Hornbori> Hornbori -- <horscr> wise, sensible -- [Pokorny 2. kerd- :: craft, talent; skilled]   -- <hraðliga> quickly -- <Hrani> Hrani -- <hrapa (að)> rush -- [Pokorny 2. (s)ker-, skerə- : skrē- :: to jump]   -- <hrata (að)> tumble, fall -- [Pokorny 2. (s)ker-, skerə- : skrē- :: to jump]   -- <hríð> while, time; storm, attack -- [Pokorny 3. (s)ker- :: to bend, curve, turn]   -- <hróðr (rs)> praise; encomium -- [Pokorny 2. kar-, karə- :: to glorify, praise aloud]   -- <Hrólfr> Hrolf -- <hross> horse -- [Pokorny 2. k̑ers- :: to run, course]   -- <hrúga> heap -- [Pokorny 3. (s)ker- :: to bend, curve, turn]   -- <hryggr> back -- <hræddr> afraid, frightened -- [Pokorny 1. kret- :: to shake]   -- <hræða (dd)> frighten; (refl.) be afraid of, be frightened -- <hrøkkva> fall back -- [Pokorny 3. (s)ker- :: to bend, curve, turn]   -- <hrœra (ð)> move, stir -- <hrœsinn> boastful -- <hús> house; room of house; (pl.) farm -- [Pokorny 2. (s)keu-, (s)keu̯ə : (s)kū- :: to hide, wrap, cover]   -- <hugleikinn> entranced, in a trance; intense(ly) -- <hugr> mind; thought; heart, spirit -- <hugsa (að)> consider, think over; determine -- <hulða> cover, sheath -- <hurð> door -- [Pokorny kert-, kerət-, krāt- :: to roll, turn, wind]   -- <hvárt> whether; (introduces direct question); however -- <hvar> where; everywhere -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <hvarfa (að)> walk, go -- <hvass> sharp; prickly -- [Pokorny kē̆d-, kō̆d- :: to bore, drill, prick, stab]   -- <hvatki_er> whatsoever -- <hvatvetna> anything whatever; everything -- <hvé> how -- <hverfa> turn -- [Pokorny ku̯erp-, also ku̯erb- :: to turn, wind]   -- <hvergi> nowhere; not at all -- <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <hversu> how, however -- <hví> why? -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   -- <hvílð> rest, pause -- [Pokorny kei̯ə-, kii̯ē- :: to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil]   -- <hvítaaurr> white mud (?) -- <hvítr> white, shining -- [Pokorny 3. k̑uei-, extended kuei-d-, kuei-s-, kuei-t- :: to shine; white]   -- <hyggiandi> thought, intellect, mind -- <hyggja (hugði, hugaðr)> think, believe -- <hyrr> fire -- <hæll> heel -- [Pokorny 1. k̑el- :: cold; warm, caloric]   -- <hættr> dangerous -- <hœfa (ð)> befall -- <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- [Pokorny 2. k̑ak-, k̑ek-? :: to help, enable]   -- <Hœnir> Hoenir -- <í> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <íhugi> resentment -- <Írskr> Irish -- <ísabrot> the breaking of the ice -- <Ísland> Iceland -- <Ísleifr> Isleif -- <Íslendingabók> Book of Icelanders -- <íss> ice, icicle -- [Pokorny 2. ei-s-, ei-n- :: ice, frost]   -- <Ívarr> Ivar -- <íviðia> 'she who dwells in the wood', witch, giantess -- <Iari> Iari -- <Iðavǫllr> Ithavale -- <illa> ill, badly -- <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- [Pokorny 7. el-, elə-, with k-suffix elk-, elək- :: hungry; bad?]   -- <Ingólfr> Ingolf -- <Ingólfsfell> Ingolf's Fell -- <Ingólfshǫfði> Ingolf's Head -- <inn> in, within -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <inn> the -- [Pokorny eno-, possibly e-no- : ono- : no- : -ne- :: that]   -- <innan> from within; into; within -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <inni> within, within the house -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <iǫrovǫllr> stony or gravelly field; Stonyvales -- <iǫtunheimr> realm of the giants -- <iǫtunn> giant -- <jafnan> ever, always -- <jafnberr> equally exposed -- <jafnlangr> of equal length -- <jafnsnimma> at the same time -- <jafnspakir> equally wise -- <jarðfastr> fixed in the earth -- <jarðligr> earthly; worldly -- <jarl> earl; free-born man, gentleman -- [Pokorny 1. er-, or- :: erne, eagle]   -- <jól> Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas -- <jóla-aptann> Christmas Eve -- <jǫrð> earth, world; ground, soil -- [Pokorny 4. er-, er-t-, er-u̯- :: earth]   -- <jǫtunn> giant -- [Pokorny ed- :: to eat]   -- <kala> be cold, become cold, freeze -- [Pokorny 3. gel(ə)- :: cool, cold; to keel, freeze]   -- <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- [Pokorny 2. gal- :: to call, cry]   -- <kapp> contest, competition; spirit, ardour, courage -- <kappi> champion, hero -- <kasta (að)> cast, throw -- <kastali> castle -- <kaupa> buy; make a bargain -- <kenna (d)> know; perceive; taste; feel; recognize; name, tell; teach -- <Ketill> Ketil -- <ki> not -- <Kíli> Kili -- <kikna (að)> give way at the knees -- [Pokorny gei- :: to bend, turn]   -- <kind> kind, child; baby; offspring, progeny, family, kin -- [Pokorny 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to bear, produce, generate]   -- <kiósa> choose, select; pick out something for someone, determine; acquire something for someone -- <kippa (ð, t)> pull, jerk; snatch, pick up; rend -- <kná (knátta)> can, be in a position to; may -- <kné> knee -- [Pokorny 1. g̑enu-, g̑neu- :: knee, joint]   -- <kneppa (t)> fasten, button; pull -- <knúta> knuckle-bone -- [Pokorny gen- :: to pinch, press together, etc.]   -- <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   -- <kona> woman; wife -- [Pokorny gē̆nā :: wife, queen, woman]   -- <Konunga-ævi> Life (Story) of the Kings, Kings' Lives -- <konungr> king -- <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- [Pokorny g̑eus- :: to taste, degust, enjoy]   -- <Kristinn> Christian -- <Kristr> Christ -- <krjúpa> creep, crouch -- [Pokorny 3. ger- :: to turn, wind, curl]   -- <kunna> know, know how to; be able -- <kunningi> acquiantance -- <kunnr> known -- <kurteisliga> courteously, with dignity -- <kveða> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- [Pokorny 2. get- :: to speak, talk]   -- <kveðja> greeting, salute -- [Pokorny 2. get- :: to speak, talk]   -- <kvelda (að)> (impers.) evening draws in -- <kvikr> alive, living -- [Pokorny 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə- :: to live, survive]   -- <kvikvendi> living being, creature; animals -- <kvǫð> duty -- <kvæði> poem -- <kýr> cow -- [Pokorny gou- :: cow, ox, gaur]   -- <kykr> alive, animate -- [Pokorny 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə- :: to live, survive]   -- <kynslóð> progeny, family line -- <kyrr> quiet -- [Pokorny 2. ger-, gerə-, gerəu-, gerī- :: grave, heavy]   -- <kyrtil> kirtle, tunic -- <kæsia> a kind of halberd, long spear -- <lá> blood, ruddiness, vital warmth -- <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- [Pokorny 3. lē(i)- :: to weaken, leave behind; feeble]   -- <lag> lay, order, disposition; (pl.) preordained fate -- [Pokorny legh- :: to lie, recline, set down]   -- <land> land -- [Pokorny 3. lendh- :: heath, steppe, open land]   -- <landauðn> depopulation -- [Pokorny 3. lendh- :: heath, steppe, open land]   -- <landaurar> land-dues; a tax paid by Icelanders to the king upon arrival in Norway -- [Pokorny 3. lendh- :: heath, steppe, open land]   -- <langniðiar> (pl.) long line of forefathers or long line of descendants -- <langt> a long way -- <laukr> leek; (general) plant -- [Pokorny 1. leug- :: to bend]   -- <lauss> loose, free -- [Pokorny 2. leu- :: to free, cut off, separate]   -- <leggja> lay, place, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; thrust, throw; make; give -- [Pokorny legh- :: to lie, recline, set down]   -- <leggr> hollow bone (of arms and legs); leg -- [Pokorny 2. lek- : lek-, and lēk- : lək- :: joint, leg, body member; to bend, wind]   -- <leið> way, journey; road, path; manner, fashion -- [Pokorny 2. leit(h)- :: to die, go away]   -- <leiða (dd)> lead -- [Pokorny 2. leit(h)- :: to die, go away]   -- <leifa (ð)> leave after death -- [Pokorny 1. leip- :: to smear (with fat), stick]   -- <leita (að)> seek, search for; find; try to go, go; attack -- [Pokorny 1. u̯el- :: to see]   -- <lengð> length -- <lengi> long; far; for a long time -- <lesa> express, concoct -- [Pokorny les- :: to lease, collect, pick up]   -- <letja (latti)> hinder, dissuade -- <leyna (d)> conceal -- <líða> move, go; pass, progress -- [Pokorny 8. el-, elē̆i-, lē̆i-, olī̆nā :: to bend; elbow]   -- <líf> life -- [Pokorny 1. leip- :: to smear (with fat), stick]   -- <líka (að)> please, be pleasing -- <líknstafr> favorable statement, esteem, warm regard -- <líkr, glíkr> like, similar to -- [Pokorny 2. lē̆ig-, līg- :: form, appearance; like, similar]   -- <líta> look; see; regard -- [Pokorny 1. u̯el- :: to see]   -- <lítill> little, short -- [Pokorny 2. lei- :: to dissipate, disappear; thin, weak]   -- <lítt> little -- [Pokorny 2. lei- :: to dissipate, disappear; thin, weak]   -- <lið> people; band, host; troops; herd; help, aid -- [Pokorny 4. lē̆i- :: to pour]   -- <liðr> joint -- [Pokorny 8. el-, elē̆i-, lē̆i-, olī̆nā :: to bend; elbow]   -- <lifa (ð)> live -- [Pokorny 1. leip- :: to smear (with fat), stick]   -- <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- <liónar> (pl.) people -- <litask (að)> look about -- <Litr> Lit, Wise -- [Pokorny 1. u̯el- :: to see]   -- <litr> looks, appearance; color(ing) -- [Pokorny 1. u̯el- :: to see]   -- <ljós> light, lantern -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <ljósta> strike -- [Pokorny 2. leu- :: to free, cut off, separate]   -- <Lóðurr> Lothur -- <lófi> palm of the hand -- [Pokorny lēp-, lōp-, ləp- :: flat]   -- <Lóni> Loni, Sea-pool -- <lǫð> invitation; hospitality -- [Pokorny 1. lē[i]- : ləi- :: to want, wish]   -- <loðbrók> shaggy-breeches -- <lof> praise -- [Pokorny leubh- :: to love, like, care for]   -- <lofa (að)> praise; allow, permit -- [Pokorny leubh- :: to love, like, care for]   -- <Lofarr> Lofar -- <lofðungr> prince, king -- <logi> flame -- [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   -- <lopt> air, sky; upper room -- [Pokorny leup-, and leub-, leubh- :: to lift, peel, cut/break off, etc.]   -- <lúka> finish, end; use up -- [Pokorny 1. leug- :: to bend]   -- <lýðr> people; (pl.) men -- <læ> harm, destruction, misfortune -- [Pokorny 2. lei- :: to dissipate, disappear; thin, weak]   -- <lægja (ð)> lower; (impers.) sink -- <læti> (pl.) gestures, manner, bearing; voice -- <mál> speech, tale; information; period of time -- [Pokorny mōd- : məd-, or mād- : məd- :: to meet, approach]   -- <málmr> metal -- [Pokorny 1. mel-, also smel-, melə- : mlē-, mel-d- : ml-ed-, mel-dh-, ml-ēi- : mlī̆-, melə-k- : mlā-k-, mlēu- : mlū̆- :: to mill, grind; fine, ground]   -- <máni> moon -- [Pokorny mēnōt, genitive mēneses, from which mēnes-, mēns-, mēs-, mēn- :: month; moon]   -- <Már> Mar, Corpse -- [Pokorny 1. mū̆- :: (onomatopoeic: to moo, hum, etc.)]   -- <máttugr> mighty -- <maðr> man, person; husband; henchman -- [Pokorny manu-s, or monu-s :: man, human being]   -- <magi> stomach -- [Pokorny mak- :: skin, leather bag]   -- <malmhríð> storm of metal, battle -- <manlíkan> human likeness or form, being in human shape -- <mannfolk> mankind; people -- <manngi> no one, nobody -- <mannvit> human intelligence, common sense -- <margr> many (a) -- [Pokorny men(e)gh-, mon(e)gh-, mn̥gh- :: many, copious, abundant, excessive]   -- <margspakr> very wise -- <marr> sea -- [Pokorny mori, mōri :: mere, sea]   -- <matnaðr> pride -- <matr> food; meal -- [Pokorny mad- :: to drip; wet; fat, glossy, well-fed]   -- <maurr> ant -- [Pokorny moru̯ī̆- :: maur, mire, ant]   -- <með> with; by means of; among; along -- [Pokorny 2. me- :: by, with, amidst, around]   -- <meðalsnotr> moderately wise, clever -- <meðan> in the meantime -- <meðan> while, as long as, whilst -- <með_því_at> inasmuch as, because -- <mega> be able to, can; may -- [Pokorny magh- : māgh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   -- <megin> main, strength; supernatural strength -- [Pokorny magh- : māgh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   -- <mein> harm, hurt, injury, pain; disease, plague -- [Pokorny 2. mei- :: to change, mutate, exchange]   -- <meinsamr> harmful, violent -- <meiri> more, bigger -- <men> necklace; jewel, treasure -- [Pokorny mono- :: neck; mane]   -- <mennskurð> weaver of necklace, lady -- <menskr> human -- <mestr> most, greatest -- <metnaðr> glory -- <miðgarðr> Midgard, Middle-enclosure, the world of men -- <miðla (að)> share out, distribute -- <miðli, milli, millum> between, among -- <miðr> middle, the middle of -- [Pokorny medhi-, medhi̯o- :: middle]   -- <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- <mikilúðligr> imposing, of distinguished appearance -- <mikla (að)> make great, 'embiggen'; (mid.) acquire fame -- <minn> my, mine, of me -- <minni> less -- [Pokorny 5. mei-, mi-neu- :: to lessen, diminish; small, minor]   -- <Minþakseyrr> Minthak's Shoal -- <Miǫðvitnir> Mjothvitnir, Mead-wolf -- <miǫtviðr> 'measure-tree', well-proportioned tree; tree which measures extent or limits of the world, tree which metes out fate -- <missa (t)> be without; lose -- [Pokorny 2. mei-t(h)- :: to commute, (ex)change]   -- <missegja> relate incorrectly -- <mjǫðr> mead -- [Pokorny médhu :: mead, honey]   -- <mjǫk> much; very -- [Pokorny meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-]   -- <mjǫtuðr> dispenser of fate -- [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   -- <móðir> mother -- [Pokorny mātér- :: mother]   -- <móðr> tired -- <mót> meeting -- [Pokorny mōd- : məd-, or mād- : məd- :: to meet, approach]   -- <móti> against; towards; to meet -- <Mótsognir> Motsognir -- <mǫgr> boy, son; (pl.) kindred -- [Pokorny maghos :: maiden, young person]   -- <Mǫrðr> Morth -- <mǫrk> mark (of silver) -- [Pokorny mereg̑- :: march, edge, border, frontier]   -- <mold> soil, earth (as substance) -- [Pokorny 1. mel-, also smel-, melə- : mlē-, mel-d- : ml-ed-, mel-dh-, ml-ēi- : mlī̆-, melə-k- : mlā-k-, mlēu- : mlū̆- :: to mill, grind; fine, ground]   -- <morginn> morning -- [Pokorny 2. mer- :: to flicker, shimmer]   -- <morna (að)> waste away -- [Pokorny 5. mer-, merə- :: to rub, wipe; pack, rob]   -- <mosi> moss -- [Pokorny 1. meu-, meu̯ə- : mū̆- :: wet, damp; to wash; dirt, mud, mire]   -- <muna> remember -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   -- <Munarvágr> Munarvag -- <munknǫrr> ship of the mind, mind -- <munstrǫnd> shore of the mind, breast, heart -- <muntún> mind-enclosure -- <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   -- <munuð> (physical) love -- <myrkr (van)> dark -- [Pokorny 2. mer- :: to flicker, shimmer]   -- <mækir> sword -- <mæla (t)> speak -- [Pokorny mōd- : məd-, or mād- : məd- :: to meet, approach]   -- <mær> maiden -- [Pokorny maghos :: maiden, young person]   -- <mæra (ð)> praise -- [Pokorny 4. mē-, mō- :: big, important]   -- <mærð> praise; encomium -- <mærr> famous -- [Pokorny 4. mē-, mō- :: big, important]   -- <mœta (tt)> meet; deal with; (mid.) join, meet -- <ná (ð)> get, obtain -- [Pokorny enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑- :: to reach, obtain]   -- <Náli> Nali -- <nánd> proximity -- <nár> corpse -- [Pokorny 2. nāu- : nəu- : nū- :: death; corpse]   -- <náttúra> nature, characteristic quality, property -- <nafn> name -- [Pokorny en(o)mn̥-, (o)nomn̥, nōmn̥ :: name]   -- <nakkvarr, nǫkkurr> a, a certain; any -- <nauðigr, nauðugr> unwilling, against one's will -- <nauð(r)> distress, harm; poverty -- [Pokorny 2. nāu- : nəu- : nū- :: death; corpse]   -- <né> not; nor -- [Pokorny 1. nĕ, nē, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   -- <neðan> from below or beneath, underneath -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <nefna (d)> name, call; mention -- <neita (tt)> refuse, deny -- <nema> unless; except -- [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   -- <nema> take; take possession of; catch, strike against; amount to -- [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   -- <nío> nine -- [Pokorny e-neu̯en, neu̯n̥, enu̯n̥ :: nine]   -- <nið> waning moon -- [Pokorny 2. nei-, neiə-, nī- :: to be moved, excited; to shine]   -- <Niði> Nithi, Waned-moon -- <niðr> kinsman; son, scion -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <niðr> down -- [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   -- <niðri> down; below -- <njóta> benefit, get benefit from -- [Pokorny neu-d- :: to grasp, make use of]   -- <Nói> Noah -- <Nóri> Nori -- [Pokorny 2. (s)ner- :: to turn, wind, etc.]   -- <nótt> night -- [Pokorny nek-(t-), nok-t-s :: night]   -- <Norðmaðr> Norwegian -- <Norðmaðr> a Norwegian -- <Norðri> North -- <Norðymbraland> Northumbria -- <Norrœnn> Norwegian -- <Norvegr> the north way; Norway -- <nú> now -- [Pokorny nū̆- :: now]   -- <Nýi> Nyi, New-moon -- <Nýráðr> Nyrath, New-counsel -- <nýsa (t)> peer, search, investigate -- [Pokorny neu-ks-, neu-s- :: to scent, smell, sniff]   -- <nær> when -- <nær> near -- <nær> near, close to, close by -- <næsta> nearly -- <næstr> next -- <óbrigðr> unfailing, reliable -- <ódæll> difficult, overbearing -- <Óðinn> Othin, Odin -- [Pokorny 2. u̯ā̆t- :: to bend, curve]   -- <óðr> mental faculties, voice -- <óðr> wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear; enraged; (name of Freyja's husband or lover) Od -- <óframliga> timidly -- <ófriðr> hostility, war -- <ógurligr> terrible -- <óhræddr> unafraid, without fear -- <ójafnask (að)> become unequal, diverse -- <ókátr> depressed, gloomy -- <ókunnr> unknown, strange -- <Óláfr> Olaf -- <ólíkr> unlike, unlike to, different from -- <ólúgfróðr> well-informed in good traditions -- <óminni> non-memory, oblivion, forgetfulness -- <ór> out of, from; of; with the material of -- [Pokorny ū̆d- :: out, away, up(wards)]   -- <órœkja (kt)> neglect, fail to heed -- <ósjaldan> not seldom, repeatedly -- <ósnotr> unwise, foolish -- <ósviðr> unwise, foolish -- <ótti> fear, dread -- [Pokorny agh- :: to ail, fear, be depressed]   -- <óvarliga> incautiously -- <óvíss> uncertain -- <óvinr> enemy -- <óvirðing> disgrace -- <ǫflugr> strong, powerful -- <ǫfugr> turned the wrong way, backwards -- [Pokorny apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   -- <ǫl> ale -- [Pokorny alu-, alu-d-, alu-t- :: bitter; ale, beer]   -- <ǫld> age; mankind, humanity, world; (pl.) men, human beings -- [Pokorny 2. al- :: to grow, nourish, enhance]   -- <ǫlðr> ale; ale-party -- [Pokorny alu-, alu-d-, alu-t- :: bitter; ale, beer]   -- <Ǫlfossá> Ale-Force (foaming waterfall) River -- <ǫlr> drunk (on ale) -- <ǫnd> breath -- [Pokorny 3. an(ə)- :: to breathe, respire, animate]   -- <Ǫnundarsonr> Onundarson -- <ǫr> arrow -- <ǫrk> ark -- <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- [Pokorny upo, up, eup, (e)up-s- :: under, (from) below, etc.]   -- <of síðir> at last -- <ofan> from above, down; southwards -- <ofarliga> high up -- <ofdrykkja> excessive drinking, over-drinking -- <oflængi> too long -- <ofreflismaðr> one's superior power -- <ofrǫlvi> excessively drunk -- <ok> and, also; but, though -- [Pokorny 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g- :: to yoke, join, tie together]   -- <opinn> open; on one's back -- <opna (að)> (cut) open -- <opnask (að)> be open -- <opt> often, frequently; as often as possible, always -- <orð> word; speech, conversation -- <orka> strength, might -- <orrosta> battle -- <papi> Irish monk, Culdee -- <prestr> priest -- <ráð> advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <Ráðsviðr> Rathsvith, Counsel-sharp -- <Ragnarsson> son of Ragnar -- <rata (að)> travel about, rove -- <rauðr> red -- [Pokorny reudh- :: red]   -- <rétt> right, rightly -- <rétta (tt)> reach, stretch up or out; raise; put right -- <réttr> right, correct; just, fair; unswerving; direct -- [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   -- <regin> (pl.) powers, rulers, gods -- [Pokorny 2. rē̆k- :: to reck, reckon, arrange, prepare]   -- <reginkunnr> of divine origin -- <Reginn> Regin -- [Pokorny 2. rē̆k- :: to reck, reckon, arrange, prepare]   -- <reið> chariot; riding -- [Pokorny reidh- :: to ride, go (in vehicle)]   -- <reiði> trappings, harness; rigging, tackle -- [Pokorny reidh- :: to ride, go (in vehicle)]   -- <reisa (t)> raise, set up -- [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   -- <reka> drive -- [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   -- <rekkr> warrior, man -- [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   -- <Reykjarvík> Bay of Smoke, Reykjavik -- <reykr> smoke -- [Pokorny reu-b-, and reu-g- :: to belch, eruct, retch, vomit]   -- <reyna (d)> try, prove -- [Pokorny 1. ereu- :: to ask, seek]   -- <ríða> ride; ride over -- [Pokorny reig-, or reig̑- :: to rig, tie, bind]   -- <ríki> kingdom; power, authority -- <ríkr> great, powerful, magnificent -- [Pokorny reig-, or reig̑- :: to rig, tie, bind]   -- <ríta> cut runes; write -- <riddari> rider, horseman -- <rif> rib -- [Pokorny 2. rebh- :: to roof, thatch]   -- <rjóða> make red, redden -- [Pokorny reudh- :: red]   -- <rjúka> reek, smoke; go flying, tumble -- [Pokorny reu-b-, and reu-g- :: to belch, eruct, retch, vomit]   -- <rót> root -- [Pokorny u̯(e)rād-, u̯erəd-, u̯rəd- :: root, branch, twig]   -- <róta (að)> throw into disorder, upset -- [Pokorny 7. u̯er- :: to root, open, tear up]   -- <rǫcstóll> judgement or council seat -- <rǫðull> sun -- [Pokorny ret(h)- :: to run, roll, rotate]   -- <rǫnd> rim; shield -- [Pokorny rem-, remə- :: to rest; to support]   -- <rúm> room, space; seat; bed -- [Pokorny reu̯ə- : rū- :: to ream, open; wide, roomy]   -- <rún> secret, secret wisdom, secret writing, rune -- <ræfr> roof -- [Pokorny 2. rēp-, rəp- :: pole, stake, beam, rafter]   -- <rœða (dd)> speak -- [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   -- <sá> that -- [Pokorny so(s), sā :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   -- <sá_er> whoever -- <sár> wound -- [Pokorny sāi- :: pain, illness; sore]   -- <saga> story; history -- [Pokorny 2. sek- :: to see, notice; show, say, speak]   -- <saklauss> innocent, guiltless -- <salr> ground; hall; (pl.) a complex dwelling -- [Pokorny 1. sel- :: salon, dwelling place]   -- <sama> beseem, befit -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <saman> together -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <samr> same -- [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   -- <sandr> sand; beach, shore -- [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   -- <sanna (að)> affirm; (refl.) prove to be true -- <sannindi> (pl.) truth -- <sannliga> truly -- <sannr, saðr> true -- <Sculd> (name of a norn); (name of a valkyrie); Shall -- <seggr> man; hero, warrior -- [Pokorny 1. sek- :: to segue, follow]   -- <segja> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- [Pokorny 2. sek- :: to see, notice; show, say, speak]   -- <segja (sagða)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- [Pokorny 2. sek- :: to see, notice; show, say, speak]   -- <seint> slowly; coldly -- <selja> give; sell -- <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- <senda (d)> send -- [Pokorny sent- :: to send, go, choose direction; to sense]   -- <set> seat; raised floor along the sides of a hall -- [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   -- <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   -- <sextán> sixteen -- <síð> late -- [Pokorny 2. sē(i)- : səi- : sī-, sē- : sə-, and sei- : si- :: to sow, dispatch, disseminate, let fall]   -- <síða> practice sorcery; bewitch -- [Pokorny 3. sē(i)-, səi- : sī-, and sei- : si- :: to bind, strap, tie]   -- <síðan> afterwards, since then -- <sínn> own, one's own -- <Sighurþarsun> Sigurtharson -- <sigr (rs)> victory -- <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   -- <sinn> time -- [Pokorny sent- :: to send, go, choose direction; to sense]   -- <sinni> companion -- <sinn(i)> time, occasion -- [Pokorny sent- :: to send, go, choose direction; to sense]   -- <sitja> sit; stay, remain; reside -- <sjá> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- [Pokorny 2. sek- :: to see, notice; show, say, speak]   -- <sjá> this --