Old Norse Online

Norse: English Meaning Index

This English Index lists, in alphabetical order, seemingly significant words used in the "general meaning" glosses of Base Forms underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each English word, base forms having that word in their general meanings are shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms sharing a general English meaning word. In order to reduce clutter in this index, certain high-frequency English "function" words are ignored unless there are no "content" words in the meaning.

This index was created by software, not by human hand, using lesson materials authored with very few constraints on the expression of "meaning" other than it being in English. Selecting significant words from free-form text via software is a notoriously difficult task. For example, while most meanings in these lessons are expressed as "glosses," some or parts may be comments directed toward the human reader, who is expected to discern the difference. Computer software cannot yet make such subtle linguistic distinctions, so all words in a meaning are treated alike. With few exceptions, then, all words are indexed. The results are neither produced nor presented with any claims to superior linguistic sensitivity, but at least the full meaning texts are shown for your inspection and judgment. Modest effort was invested in tuning the software to ignore [apparently] superfluous, high-frequency words (e.g., the preposition "of") that, in the presence of [apparently] more important words, contribute little or no useful information to an index; unfortunately this may result in some words, in some contexts, being unfairly omitted.




ABILITY : <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- ABLE : <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- ABLE : <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- ABLE : <kunna> know, know how to; be able -- ABLE : <mega> be able to, can; may -- ABODE : <tún> courtyard, (enclosed) field; home meadow; (pl.) farmstead; abode -- ABOUT : <litask (að)> look about -- ABOUT : <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- ABOUT : <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- ABOUT : <rata (að)> travel about, rove -- ABOUT : <spyrja (spurði)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- ABOUT : <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- ABOVE : <ofan> from above, down; southwards -- ABOVE : <uphiminn> 'upper heaven', the heavens or sky above -- ABOVE : <yfir> above, over, at; across, upon -- ABROAD : <út> out; from abroad -- ABYSS : <ginnung> mighty space, abyss, void -- ACCEPT : <hafa (ð)> have, keep; hold; accept -- ACCEPT : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- ACCEPT : <þiggja> accept, receive -- ACCOMPANY : <fylgja (gð)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- ACCOMPLISHED : <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- ACCORDING : <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- ACCORDING : <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- ACQUIANTANCE : <kunningi> acquiantance -- ACQUIRE : <kiósa> choose, select; pick out something for someone, determine; acquire something for someone -- ACQUIRE : <mikla (að)> make great, 'embiggen'; (mid.) acquire fame -- ACROSS : <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- ACROSS : <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- ACROSS : <yfir> above, over, at; across, upon -- ACT : <gera (ð)> do, perform; act; make, build; finish -- ACTIVITY : <háttr> kind, type; (pl.) activity, habits, behavior -- ADAM : <Adam> Adam -- ADD : <auka> to increase, add -- ADORN : <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- ADVANCE : <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- ADVANCEMENT : <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- ADVERSE : <þverr> athwart; adverse, contrary -- ADVICE : <ráð> advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement -- ADVISE : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- ADVOCATE : <formælandi> supporter, advocate, speaker on one's behalf -- AFFABLE : <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- AFFIRM : <sanna (að)> affirm; (refl.) prove to be true -- AFLOAT : <á flot> afloat -- AFRAID : <hræddr> afraid, frightened -- AFRAID : <hræða (dd)> frighten; (refl.) be afraid of, be frightened -- AFT : <aptr> back; aft -- AFTER : <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- AFTER : <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- AFTER : <leifa (ð)> leave after death -- AFTER : <undorn> the time before or after the midday meal -- AFTERWARDS : <síðan> afterwards, since then -- AGAIN : <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- AGAINST : <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- AGAINST : <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- AGAINST : <móti> against; towards; to meet -- AGAINST : <nauðigr, nauðugr> unwilling, against one's will -- AGAINST : <nema> take; take possession of; catch, strike against; amount to -- AGAINST : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- AGAINST : <við> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- AGE : <aldartal> count of time, age -- AGE : <elli> old age -- AGE : <ǫld> age; mankind, humanity, world; (pl.) men, human beings -- AGILE : <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- AGO : <ár> early, in the early morning; of yore, long ago -- AGO : <forðum> formerly, some time ago -- AGREEMENT : <ráð> advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement -- AI : <Ái> Ai, Great-grandfather -- AID : <duga> help, aid, be of avail, be of assistance -- AID : <lið> people; band, host; troops; herd; help, aid -- AIR : <lopt> air, sky; upper room -- ALE : <ǫl> ale -- ALE : <ǫlr> drunk (on ale) -- ALE : <ǫlðr> ale; ale-party -- ALE-FORCE : <Ǫlfossá> Ale-Force (foaming waterfall) River -- ALE-PARTY : <ǫlðr> ale; ale-party -- ALF : <Álfr> Alf, Elf -- ALIVE : <kvikr> alive, living -- ALIVE : <kykr> alive, animate -- ALL : <albryniaðr> all clad in mail, in a byrnie -- ALL : <allr> all, whole; every -- ALL : <helzt> most willingly; most of all; exceedingly -- ALL : <hvergi> nowhere; not at all -- ALL : <styðja (dd)> support; provide with supports; use as a support; stab or pierce from all sides -- ALL : <æva> never; not at all -- ALLOW : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- ALLOW : <lofa (að)> praise; allow, permit -- ALLOW : <unna> not grudge; grant, allow; love -- ALMIGHTY : <almáttigr> almighty -- ALONG : <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- ALONG : <með> with; by means of; among; along -- ALONG : <set> seat; raised floor along the sides of a hall -- ALSO : <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- ALSO : <ok> and, also; but, though -- ALSO : <svá> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- ALTAR : <hǫrgr> outdoor sanctuary, (stone) altar, temple -- ALTERNATIVE : <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- ALTHJOF : <Alþiófr> Althjof, Great-thief -- ALWAYS : <ey> forever; always -- ALWAYS : <jafnan> ever, always -- ALWAYS : <opt> often, frequently; as often as possible, always -- ALWAYS : <æ> ever, always; forever -- AMONG : <í> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- AMONG : <með> with; by means of; among; along -- AMONG : <miðli, milli, millum> between, among -- AMOUNT : <nema> take; take possession of; catch, strike against; amount to -- AMOUNT : <sæta (tt)> amount to, signify -- AMPLE : <drjúgr> lasting, ample, substantial -- AN : <Án> An -- ANAR : <Ánarr> Anar -- ANCESTRY : <ætt> direction, region; family, line; stock, tribe; ancestry -- ANCIENT : <forn> old, ancient -- ANGANTYR : <Angantýr> Angantyr -- ANGLES : <Englakonungr> king of the Angles -- ANGLES : <Englar> Angles, the English -- ANIMAL : <dýr> (wild) animal -- ANIMALS : <kvikvendi> living being, creature; animals -- ANIMATE : <kykr> alive, animate -- ANOTHER : <annarr> other, another; second, next; one (of two) -- ANOTHER : <veita (tt)> grant, give; help; pay, yield; (recip.) back one another -- ANSWER : <svara (að)> answer -- ANT : <maurr> ant -- ANVIL : <geirr> spear; point of anvil -- ANY : <einnhverr> a certain, some, any -- ANY : <heldr> rather, any the more -- ANY : <nakkvarr, nǫkkurr> a, a certain; any -- ANYTHING : <hvatvetna> anything whatever; everything -- APPEAR : <sýna (d)> show; (mid.) appear to be, seem; exist -- APPEARANCE : <litr> looks, appearance; color(ing) -- APPEARANCE : <mikilúðligr> imposing, of distinguished appearance -- APPERTAIN : <fylgja (gð)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- APPLIED : <jól> Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas -- ARDOUR : <kapp> contest, competition; spirit, ardour, courage -- ARINBJORN : <Arinbjǫrn> Arinbjorn -- ARK : <ǫrk> ark -- ARM : <handleggr> arm; (pl.) upper arm and forearm -- ARM : <hǫnd> hand, arm and hand; side, part -- ARM : <valtæigr> hawk's ground, i.e. the arm -- ARMIES : <fólcvíg> troop-slaying, battle (between armies), war -- ARMS : <leggr> hollow bone (of arms and legs); leg -- ARNGRIM : <Arngrímr> Arngrim -- AROUND : <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- AROUND : <umhverfis> around -- ARRANGE : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- ARRAY : <fylking> battle array, host -- ARRAY : <skipa (að)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- ARRIVAL : <landaurar> land-dues; a tax paid by Icelanders to the king upon arrival in Norway -- ARRIVE : <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- ARROW : <ǫr> arrow -- ASH : <askr> ash tree; spear; Ash -- ASH : <þollr> tree (the ash Yggdrasil); post, pillar; beam -- ASK : <biðja> ask; beg; pray; bid -- ASK : <fregna> learn, hear of; ask -- ASK : <spyrja (spurði)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- ASSEMBLY : <þing> (legal) assembly -- ASSIGN : <skipa (að)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- ASSISTANCE : <duga> help, aid, be of avail, be of assistance -- ASTONISHED : <undrask (að)> wonder, be astonished (at) -- ASTRAY : <villr> wild, astray -- ASUNDER : <sundr> asunder -- ATHALSTAN : <Aðalsteinn> Athalstan, king of England -- ATHWART : <þverr> athwart; adverse, contrary -- ATONE : <gjalda> repay, requite; pay compensation; give something as recompense for something; atone or pay for -- ATONEMENT : <bót> compensation, atonement -- ATTACK : <hríð> while, time; storm, attack -- ATTACK : <leita (að)> seek, search for; find; try to go, go; attack -- ATTACK : <sókn> fight, attack -- ATTEND : <fylgja (gð)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- ATTEND : <gæta (tt)> attend to, tend, guard, watch over; keep watch -- ATTENTION : <gaumr> heed, attention -- AURVANG : <Aurvangr> Aurvang, Mudfield -- AUTHORITY : <ríki> kingdom; power, authority -- AUTUMN : <haust> autumn -- AVAIL : <duga> help, aid, be of avail, be of assistance -- AVAILABLE : <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- AVENGE : <hefna (d)> avenge -- AWAIT : <biða (að)> await -- AWAKE : <vaka> be awake, stay awake; watch -- AWARE : <vita (ssi)> know, be aware of; understand; know how (to); know of; find out -- AWAY : <deyja> die, pass away -- AWAY : <fram> forward, on; away; out -- AWAY : <morna (að)> waste away -- AWAY : <undan> from under; away; (thrown) down -- BABY : <kind> kind, child; baby; offspring, progeny, family, kin -- BACK : <aptr> back; aft -- BACK : <bak> back -- BACK : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- BACK : <hryggr> back -- BACK : <hrøkkva> fall back -- BACK : <opinn> open; on one's back -- BACK : <skutr> back cabin -- BACK : <veita (tt)> grant, give; help; pay, yield; (recip.) back one another -- BACKWARDS : <ǫfugr> turned the wrong way, backwards -- BAD : <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- BADLY : <illa> ill, badly -- BAND : <lið> people; band, host; troops; herd; help, aid -- BARGAIN : <kaupa> buy; make a bargain -- BATTLE : <Bǫðvarr> battle, Bothvar -- BATTLE : <fólcvíg> troop-slaying, battle (between armies), war -- BATTLE : <fundr> meeting; battle -- BATTLE : <fylking> battle array, host -- BATTLE : <guðr> battle -- BATTLE : <hjaldr (rs)> battle -- BATTLE : <hlǫkk> clash; battle -- BATTLE : <malmhríð> storm of metal, battle -- BATTLE : <orrosta> battle -- BAVOR : <Bávǫrr> Bavor -- BAY : <Reykjarvík> Bay of Smoke, Reykjavik -- BEACH : <fjara> ebb-tide, fore-shore, beach -- BEACH : <sandr> sand; beach, shore -- BEAM : <stokkr> log, piece of wood; beam -- BEAM : <tré> tree; log, beam -- BEAM : <viðr> tree; beam; forest; wood -- BEAM : <þollr> tree (the ash Yggdrasil); post, pillar; beam -- BEAR : <ala> give birth to, bear; feed -- BEAR : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- BEARING : <austan> from the east; east (of); bearing to the east -- BEARING : <læti> (pl.) gestures, manner, bearing; voice -- BEARING : <vestan> from the west; west (of); bearing to the west -- BEAT : <berja (barði)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- BEAT : <berja (barði, bariðr)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- BEAUTIFUL : <fagr (ran)> fair, beautiful -- BECAUSE : <af> out of, from; with; concerning; because of -- BECAUSE : <af_því_at> because, for -- BECAUSE : <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- BECAUSE : <með_því_at> inasmuch as, because -- BECAUSE : <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- BECAUSE : <við> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- BECAUSE : <þvíat> since, because, for -- BECOME : <fjǫlmennask (t)> become peopled, full of people -- BECOME : <kala> be cold, become cold, freeze -- BECOME : <ójafnask (að)> become unequal, diverse -- BECOME : <sóma (d)> beseem, become -- BECOME : <verða> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- BED : <rúm> room, space; seat; bed -- BEFALL : <hœfa (ð)> befall -- BEFALL : <verða> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- BEFIT : <sama> beseem, befit -- BEFORE : <áðr> before, first; until -- BEFORE : <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- BEFORE : <fyrr> before; first; until -- BEFORE : <undorn> the time before or after the midday meal -- BEG : <biðja> ask; beg; pray; bid -- BEGIN : <feta> step; proceed in, begin to -- BEGIN : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- BEGINNING : <upphaf> beginning -- BEHALF : <formælandi> supporter, advocate, speaker on one's behalf -- BEHAVE : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- BEHAVIOR : <atferð> behavior; energy -- BEHAVIOR : <háttr> kind, type; (pl.) activity, habits, behavior -- BEHIND : <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- BEHIND : <undir> under, below; beneath; up to; behind -- BEHOLD : <vænn> likely; fair to behold -- BEINGS : <ǫld> age; mankind, humanity, world; (pl.) men, human beings -- BELIEVE : <hyggja (hugði, hugaðr)> think, believe -- BELIEVE : <trúa (ð)> believe, trust, have faith in -- BELL : <bjalla> bell -- BELONG : <fylgja (gð)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- BELOW : <neðan> from below or beneath, underneath -- BELOW : <niðri> down; below -- BELOW : <undir> under, below; beneath; up to; behind -- BENCH : <bekkr> bench -- BEND : <gægjask (ð)> bend forward to see, gaze, glare -- BENEATH : <neðan> from below or beneath, underneath -- BENEATH : <undir> under, below; beneath; up to; behind -- BENEFIT : <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- BENEFIT : <njóta> benefit, get benefit from -- BENEVOLENT : <ástugr> loving, benevolent -- BEREFT : <handarvanr> bereft of a hand, lacking a hand, one-armed -- BERSERK : <berserkr> berserk -- BESEEM : <sama> beseem, befit -- BESEEM : <sóma (d)> beseem, become -- BESIDE : <hjá> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- BESPRINKLE : <dreifa (ð)> scatter (dat.); besprinkle (acc.) -- BEST : <beztr> best -- BETRAY : <svíkja> betray -- BETRAYER : <Ginnarr> Ginnar, Betrayer -- BETTER : <betr> better; more -- BETTER : <betri> better -- BETWEEN : <fólcvíg> troop-slaying, battle (between armies), war -- BETWEEN : <miðli, milli, millum> between, among -- BEWILDERED : <villhyggjandi> bewildered, deluded -- BEWITCH : <síða> practice sorcery; bewitch -- BEYOND : <útan> outside (of); beyond; without -- BID : <biðja> ask; beg; pray; bid -- BIG : <digr> big, stout; thick; deep -- BIG : <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- BIG : <þróask (að)> thrive, grow (big), increase -- BIGGER : <meiri> more, bigger -- BIND : <fjǫtra (að)> fetter, bind -- BIRD : <fugl> bird -- BIRTH : <ala> give birth to, bear; feed -- BIRTH : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- BIRTH : <burðr> birth -- BISHOP : <biskup> bishop -- BITCH : <bikkja> bitch, dog -- BITE : <bíta> bite, cut -- BITE : <festa (t)> fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on -- BIVOR : <Bívǫrr> Bivor -- BLACK : <blár> blue; black -- BLACK : <svartr> black -- BLAIN : <Bláinn> Blain -- BLEMISH : <vamm> blemish, fault -- BLEND : <blanda (blett, -að)> blend, mix -- BLIND : <blindr> blind -- BLOCK : <skíð> block of wood; wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame -- BLOOD : <blóð> blood -- BLOOD : <lá> blood, ruddiness, vital warmth -- BLOW : <hǫgg> stroke, blow -- BLOW : <svipan> swing, sweep, blow -- BLOWING : <fnǫsun> snorting, blowing out -- BLUE : <blár> blue; black -- BOARD : <borðveggr> board wall, wall made of planks -- BOARD : <tefla (lð)> play at 'tables', play board games -- BOARDS : <flet> boards of a hall used for seating -- BOARDS : <skíð> block of wood; wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame -- BOARDS : <súðþakiðr> roofed with overlapping boards -- BOASTFUL : <hrœsinn> boastful -- BOAT : <skip> ship, boat -- BODE : <gegna (d)> (dat.) be suitable for; mean, bode -- BODY : <flokkr> body of men; short lay -- BODY : <speki> wisdom; branch of learning, body of knowledge -- BOG : <fen> bog, fen -- BOLD : <djarfr> bold, daring -- BOMBUR : <Bǫmburr> Bombur -- BONE : <bein> bone; ivory -- BONE : <leggr> hollow bone (of arms and legs); leg -- BONES : <beinahrúga> heap of bones -- BOOK : <Íslendingabók> Book of Icelanders -- BOOK : <bók> book -- BOTH : <báðir> both -- BOTH : <bæði> both -- BOTHVAR : <Bǫðvarr> battle, Bothvar -- BOTTOM : <grund> ground, bottom; broad surface; surface of the earth, earth -- BOY : <mǫgr> boy, son; (pl.) kindred -- BRANCH : <grein> branch, division; particular, detail -- BRANCH : <speki> wisdom; branch of learning, body of knowledge -- BRAVE : <snjallr> clever in speech, eloquent; brave -- BREAK : <brjóta> (trans.) break, destroy; distribute; (mid.) exert oneself -- BREAK : <brotna (að)> (intrans.) break, be broken -- BREAKING : <ísabrot> the breaking of the ice -- BREAST : <brjóst> breast -- BREAST : <fang> grasp, hold; breast; wrestling, contest; catch; provisions -- BREAST : <munstrǫnd> shore of the mind, breast, heart -- BREATH : <ǫnd> breath -- BRIDE : <brúðr> bride, young married woman; wife -- BRIGHT : <heiðr> bright, clear; Bright -- BRING : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- BRING : <fœra (ð)> bring, send; hurl, smite; move; present -- BRING : <fœða (dd)> feed; nurse; rear, bring up -- BRING : <leggja> lay, place, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; thrust, throw; make; give -- BROAD : <grund> ground, bottom; broad surface; surface of the earth, earth -- BROKEN : <brotna (að)> (intrans.) break, be broken -- BROTHER : <bróðir> brother -- BROTHER : <fǫðurbróðir> father's brother, uncle -- BUCK : <bokki> buck; fellow -- BUILD : <byggja (gð)> dwell, settle; build, inhabit -- BUILD : <gera (ð)> do, perform; act; make, build; finish -- BUILD : <gøra> make, build; write, compose -- BUILD : <smíða (að)> forge, make, build -- BUILD : <timbra (að)> timber, build, construct -- BUILT : <gǫrr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- BUR : <Burr> Bur, Odin's father -- BURDEN : <byrðr> burden, load -- BURN : <brenna (d)> (trans.) burn, light, set on fire -- BURN : <brenna> (intrans.) burn, be on fire -- BURN : <brunnr> burn, spring, well -- BUT : <en> but, and; than -- BUT : <eða> or; and; but -- BUT : <ok> and, also; but, though -- BUTTON : <kneppa (t)> fasten, button; pull -- BUY : <kaupa> buy; make a bargain -- BY : <auðna (að)> (impers.) fall out by fate -- BY : <á> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- BY : <ekki> not, by no means -- BY : <festa (t)> fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on -- BY : <fjarri> far, far off; by no means -- BY : <hjá> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- BY : <landaurar> land-dues; a tax paid by Icelanders to the king upon arrival in Norway -- BY : <með> with; by means of; among; along -- BY : <nær> near, close to, close by -- BY : <við> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- BYRNIE : <albryniaðr> all clad in mail, in a byrnie -- CABIN : <skutr> back cabin -- CALL : <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- CALL : <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- CALL : <nefna (d)> name, call; mention -- CALLED : <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- CAN : <kná (knátta)> can, be in a position to; may -- CAN : <mega> be able to, can; may -- CANOPY : <tjald> tent, canopy; pavilion -- CAPTURE : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- CARE : <hirða (ð)> keep; mind, care -- CAREFUL : <gætinn> wary, careful -- CARRY : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- CARVE : <skera> shear, cut; cut through; cut open, pierce; make incisions, carve -- CAST : <kasta (að)> cast, throw -- CAST : <verpa> throw, cast -- CASTLE : <borg> castle, fortress; funeral pyre -- CASTLE : <kastali> castle -- CATCH : <fang> grasp, hold; breast; wrestling, contest; catch; provisions -- CATCH : <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- CATCH : <nema> take; take possession of; catch, strike against; amount to -- CATTLE : <fé> cattle; sheep; money; possessions -- CAUSE : <bani> death; cause of death, slayer -- CAUSE : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- CAUSE : <skynda (d)> cause to hasten, hurry; (intr.) hasten -- CAUSE : <sǫk> cause, reason; lawsuit, dispute; sake -- CAVALRY : <áreið> cavalry charge -- CERTAIN : <einn> one; a certain, particular -- CERTAIN : <einnhverr> a certain, some, any -- CERTAIN : <nakkvarr, nǫkkurr> a, a certain; any -- CERTAIN : <víss> certain, wise -- CERTAINLY : <fast> fast, strongly, hard; certainly -- CHAMPION : <kappi> champion, hero -- CHANCE : <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- CHANCE : <verða> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- CHARACTER : <skap> character -- CHARACTERISTIC : <eðli> nature, characteristic(s) -- CHARACTERISTIC : <náttúra> nature, characteristic quality, property -- CHARGE : <áreið> cavalry charge -- CHARIOT : <reið> chariot; riding -- CHASM : <gap> gap, gaping, chasm -- CHEERFUL : <teitr> cheerful, merry; frolicsome -- CHIEF : <goði> chief (and priest) -- CHIEF : <hilmir> chief, king -- CHIEF : <hǫfðingi> chief, ruler -- CHILD : <barn> child -- CHILD : <kind> kind, child; baby; offspring, progeny, family, kin -- CHIMNEY : <afl> hearth, fireplace or chimney of a forge -- CHOICE : <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- CHOOSE : <kiósa> choose, select; pick out something for someone, determine; acquire something for someone -- CHOOSE : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- CHRIST : <Kristr> Christ -- CHRISTIAN : <Kristinn> Christian -- CHRISTMAS : <jól> Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas -- CHRISTMAS : <jóla-aptann> Christmas Eve -- CLAD : <albryniaðr> all clad in mail, in a byrnie -- CLAIM : <eiga> own, have, possess; have in marriage; have the power to; have claim to; have duty to -- CLAIM : <heimta (mt)> claim -- CLASH : <gnýr> clash, din -- CLASH : <hlǫkk> clash; battle -- CLASHING : <brǫkon> clashing -- CLASP : <spenna (t)> span, clasp -- CLEAR : <heiðr> bright, clear; Bright -- CLEAR : <skýrr> clear, manifest -- CLEVER : <meðalsnotr> moderately wise, clever -- CLEVER : <slœgr> clever, crafty -- CLEVER : <snjallr> clever in speech, eloquent; brave -- CLEVER : <snotr> wise, clever -- CLIMB : <hlaupa> leap, spring, climb; mount; run -- CLOAK : <feldr> cloak -- CLOAK : <heðinn> fur cloak, coat -- CLOSE : <hjá> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- CLOSE : <nær> near, close to, close by -- CLOSE : <við> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- CLOTH : <skrúð> cloth, stuff; mailcoat -- CLOTH : <váð> cloth; (pl.) clothes -- CLOTHES : <váð> cloth; (pl.) clothes -- COAT : <brynja> coat of mail -- COAT : <heðinn> fur cloak, coat -- COIL : <baugr> ring; coil -- COLD : <kala> be cold, become cold, freeze -- COLD : <svalr> cool, cold -- COLDLY : <seint> slowly; coldly -- COLOR : <Vitr> Vit, Color -- COLOR : <fá (ð)> color -- COLOR : <litr> looks, appearance; color(ing) -- COME : <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- COME : <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- COME : <verða> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- COMFORTABLE : <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- COMMAND : <bjóða> offer, provide; command, summon -- COMMAND : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- COMMANDMENT : <boðorð> commandment -- COMMEND : <fela> hide; make over, commend -- COMMON : <mannvit> human intelligence, common sense -- COMPANION : <sinni> companion -- COMPARED : <hjá> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- COMPENSATION : <bót> compensation, atonement -- COMPENSATION : <gildi> recompense, return; payment due, tribute, offerings or compensation -- COMPENSATION : <gjalda> repay, requite; pay compensation; give something as recompense for something; atone or pay for -- COMPENSATION : <sœmð, sœmd> honor; redress, compensation -- COMPETITION : <kapp> contest, competition; spirit, ardour, courage -- COMPLETE : <fylla (d)> fill; complete; increase -- COMPLEX : <salr> ground; hall; (pl.) a complex dwelling -- COMPOSE : <gøra> make, build; write, compose -- CONCEAL : <leyna (d)> conceal -- CONCEDE : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- CONCEIT : <dul> reserve, folly; conceit -- CONCERNING : <af> out of, from; with; concerning; because of -- CONCERNING : <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- CONCERNING : <frá> from; concerning -- CONCERNING : <of> over; across, through; around, about; concerning; because of; for -- CONCERNING : <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- CONCERNING : <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- CONCOCT : <lesa> express, concoct -- CONDITION : <far> track, subject; conduct, deeds; condition -- CONDITION : <kostr> choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; condition, quality; terms -- CONDITION : <standa> stand (firm); get up; take up a position; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh -- CONDUCT : <far> track, subject; conduct, deeds; condition -- CONJURE : <vitta (tt)> enchant, conjure -- CONSECRATE : <vígja (ð)> hallow, consecrate; lay a spell on -- CONSIDER : <hugsa (að)> consider, think over; determine -- CONSIDER : <ætla (að)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- CONSTRUCT : <timbra (að)> timber, build, construct -- CONTEND : <deila (d)> divide; distinguishk quarrel, contend -- CONTENTED : <una> be contented; enjoy -- CONTEST : <fang> grasp, hold; breast; wrestling, contest; catch; provisions -- CONTEST : <kapp> contest, competition; spirit, ardour, courage -- CONTINUOUS : <fastr> firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous -- CONTRARY : <þverr> athwart; adverse, contrary -- CONTROL : <vald> power, control -- CONVERSATION : <orð> word; speech, conversation -- CONVERSATION : <tal> enumeration, list; conversation -- CONVERSE : <tala (að)> talk, speak; (recip.) discuss, converse -- COOL : <svalr> cool, cold -- CORNER : <horn> horn; drinking horn; corner -- CORPSE : <Már> Mar, Corpse -- CORPSE : <nár> corpse -- CORRECT : <réttr> right, correct; just, fair; unswerving; direct -- COSTLY : <hnoss> costly thing, ornament -- COUNCIL : <rǫcstóll> judgement or council seat -- COUNSEL : <ráð> advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement -- COUNSEL : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- COUNSEL-SHARP : <Ráðsviðr> Rathsvith, Counsel-sharp -- COUNT : <aldartal> count of time, age -- COUNT : <telja (talða)> reckon, count; trace; number, enumerate; recount; declare -- COURAGE : <drengskapr> nobility, courage -- COURAGE : <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- COURAGE : <kapp> contest, competition; spirit, ardour, courage -- COURT : <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- COURTEOUSLY : <kurteisliga> courteously, with dignity -- COURTYARD : <tún> courtyard, (enclosed) field; home meadow; (pl.) farmstead; abode -- COURTYARDS : <heimisgarðar> (pl.) courtyards of a house, homestead(s), premises -- COVER : <hlíf> cover, shelter; shield -- COVER : <hulða> cover, sheath -- COW : <kýr> cow -- CRACK : <braka (að)> crack, creak -- CRAFTY : <slœgr> clever, crafty -- CRASHING : <hlǫm> crashing sound -- CREAK : <braka (að)> crack, creak -- CREATE : <skapa (að)> create; make, shape; determine -- CREATE : <skepia (skóp, skapða)> make, create; pronounce, impose, decree -- CREATOR : <skapari> creator -- CREATURE : <kvikvendi> living being, creature; animals -- CREEP : <krjúpa> creep, crouch -- CROSS-BEAM : <þvertré> cross-beam -- CROSS-PIECE : <uppdyri> upper cross-piece of doorway, lintel -- CROUCH : <krjúpa> creep, crouch -- CROWD : <drífa> drive; crowd, throng; rush -- CROZIER : <bagall> episcopal staff, crozier -- CRY : <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- CRY : <kveða> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- CRY : <œpa (t)> cry out -- CULDEE : <papi> Irish monk, Culdee -- CURSES : <feikinstafir> (pl.) curses -- CURVE : <bughr> curve -- CUSTOM : <vandi> custom, habit -- CUT : <bíta> bite, cut -- CUT : <opna (að)> (cut) open -- CUT : <ríta> cut runes; write -- CUT : <skera> shear, cut; cut through; cut open, pierce; make incisions, carve -- DALE : <dalr> dale, dell, valley -- DAMAGE : <hata (að)> damage, destroy -- DAMAGE : <skaði> damage, loss -- DAMP : <aurvangar> damp or muddy fields -- DANGER : <háski> danger, harm -- DANGEROUS : <hættr> dangerous -- DARE : <þora (ð)> dare -- DARING : <djarfr> bold, daring -- DARK : <myrkr (van)> dark -- DAUGHTER : <Snorradóttir> daughter of Snorri -- DAUGHTER : <dóttir> daughter -- DAY : <dagr> day -- DEAD : <dauðr> dead -- DEAF : <daufr> deaf -- DEAL : <mœta (tt)> meet; deal with; (mid.) join, meet -- DEAL : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- DEALINGS : <skipti> (pl.) dealings -- DEAR : <dýrr> dear, expensive; precious -- DEATH : <bani> death; cause of death, slayer -- DEATH : <dauðr> death -- DEATH : <dǫuðarorð> tidings of death -- DEATH : <leifa (ð)> leave after death -- DEATH-PROCLAIMING : <vígspár> death-proclaiming -- DECAYED : <fúinn> rotten, decayed -- DECEITFUL : <fláráðr> false, deceitful -- DECEIVE : <dylja (dulði)> keep on in ignorance of; (mid.) deceive oneself -- DECIDE : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- DECIDE : <skipta (t)> divide, share; exchange; decide -- DECLARE : <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- DECLARE : <kveða> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- DECLARE : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- DECLARE : <telja (talða)> reckon, count; trace; number, enumerate; recount; declare -- DECREE : <skepia (skóp, skapða)> make, create; pronounce, impose, decree -- DEEDS : <far> track, subject; conduct, deeds; condition -- DEEP : <digr> big, stout; thick; deep -- DEEP : <djúpr> deep -- DEFEND : <verja (varði)> defend, protect -- DEFENSE : <viðrtaca> reception, defense -- DELAYED : <dveljask (dvalðisk)> stay; be delayed -- DELAYER : <Dvalinn> Dvalin, Delayer -- DELIGHT : <angan> delight, joy -- DELL : <dalr> dale, dell, valley -- DELUDED : <villhyggjandi> bewildered, deluded -- DENY : <neita (tt)> refuse, deny -- DENY : <spara (ð, að)> spare; grudge, deny -- DENY : <synja (að)> refuse, deny -- DEPART : <fararleyfi> leave to depart -- DEPOPULATION : <landauðn> depopulation -- DEPRESSED : <ókátr> depressed, gloomy -- DESCENDANTS : <langniðiar> (pl.) long line of forefathers or long line of descendants -- DESIRE : <fýsa (t)> urge, encourage; (impers.) desire -- DESIRE : <girnd> desire -- DESIRE : <vili> will, desire, disposition -- DESTINY : <ørlǫg> (pl.) destiny, fate; war -- DESTROY : <brjóta> (trans.) break, destroy; distribute; (mid.) exert oneself -- DESTROY : <hata (að)> damage, destroy -- DESTROY : <spilla (t)> destroy, spoil -- DESTROYER : <herr> harrier, destroyer -- DESTRUCTION : <læ> harm, destruction, misfortune -- DETAIL : <grein> branch, division; particular, detail -- DETAILS : <deili> (pl.) details -- DETERMINE : <hugsa (að)> consider, think over; determine -- DETERMINE : <kiósa> choose, select; pick out something for someone, determine; acquire something for someone -- DETERMINE : <skapa (að)> create; make, shape; determine -- DEW : <dǫgg> (sg. and pl.) dew -- DIE : <deyja> die, pass away -- DIFFERENT : <ólíkr> unlike, unlike to, different from -- DIFFICULT : <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- DIFFICULT : <ódæll> difficult, overbearing -- DIG : <grafa> dig; engrave, inlay -- DIGNITY : <kurteisliga> courteously, with dignity -- DIN : <gnýr> clash, din -- DIRE : <urðr> weird, (dire) fate; undoing, ruin; (pl.) fates, powers of fate; (name of a norn) -- DIRECT : <hvárt> whether; (introduces direct question); however -- DIRECT : <réttr> right, correct; just, fair; unswerving; direct -- DIRECT : <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- DIRECT : <stýra (ð)> steer, direct; wield; own -- DIRECTION : <ætt> direction, region; family, line; stock, tribe; ancestry -- DISBAND : <skilja (ð, d)> divide, separate; disband; understand, perceive -- DISCOVER : <finna> find, meet; discover; notice; invent -- DISCUSS : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- DISCUSS : <tala (að)> talk, speak; (recip.) discuss, converse -- DISEASE : <mein> harm, hurt, injury, pain; disease, plague -- DISGRACE : <óvirðing> disgrace -- DISGRACE : <svívirðing> disgrace -- DISORDER : <róta (að)> throw into disorder, upset -- DISPENSER : <mjǫtuðr> dispenser of fate -- DISPOSITION : <geð> disposition; mind; wits; sense; inclination -- DISPOSITION : <lag> lay, order, disposition; (pl.) preordained fate -- DISPOSITION : <vili> will, desire, disposition -- DISPOSITION : <œði> disposition -- DISPUTE : <sǫk> cause, reason; lawsuit, dispute; sake -- DISSUADE : <letja (latti)> hinder, dissuade -- DISTINGUISHED : <mikilúðligr> imposing, of distinguished appearance -- DISTINGUISHK : <deila (d)> divide; distinguishk quarrel, contend -- DISTRESS : <nauð(r)> distress, harm; poverty -- DISTRIBUTE : <brjóta> (trans.) break, destroy; distribute; (mid.) exert oneself -- DISTRIBUTE : <miðla (að)> share out, distribute -- DIVERSE : <ójafnask (að)> become unequal, diverse -- DIVIDE : <deila (d)> divide; distinguishk quarrel, contend -- DIVIDE : <skilja (ð, d)> divide, separate; disband; understand, perceive -- DIVIDE : <skipta (t)> divide, share; exchange; decide -- DIVINE : <reginkunnr> of divine origin -- DIVISION : <grein> branch, division; particular, detail -- DO : <gera (ð)> do, perform; act; make, build; finish -- DO : <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- DO : <vinna> work, perform, do (with ppart.) -- DO : <ætla (að)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- DOCILE : <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- DOG : <bikkja> bitch, dog -- DOLGTHRASIR : <Dólgþrasir> Dolgthrasir -- DONE : <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- DONE : <gǫrr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- DONE : <láta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- DONE : <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- DOOR : <dyrr> door, doorway -- DOOR : <hurð> door -- DOOR : <skíð> block of wood; wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame -- DOOR-OPENING : <gátt> door-opening -- DOORWAY : <dyrr> door, doorway -- DOORWAY : <uppdyri> upper cross-piece of doorway, lintel -- DOWN : <falla> fall, fall down; flow; be slain -- DOWN : <leggja> lay, place, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; thrust, throw; make; give -- DOWN : <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- DOWN : <niðr> down -- DOWN : <niðri> down; below -- DOWN : <ofan> from above, down; southwards -- DOWN : <undan> from under; away; (thrown) down -- DRAUGHT : <drykkr> draught, drink -- DRAUPNIR : <Draupnir> Draupnir -- DRAW : <bregða> move quickly; throw; draw (sword) -- DRAW : <draga> draw, haul -- DRAW : <skipa (að)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- DRAWS : <kvelda (að)> (impers.) evening draws in -- DREAD : <ótti> fear, dread -- DRINK : <drekka> drink -- DRINK : <drykkr> draught, drink -- DRINKING : <horn> horn; drinking horn; corner -- DRINKING : <ofdrykkja> excessive drinking, over-drinking -- DRIVE : <drífa> drive; crowd, throng; rush -- DRIVE : <reka> drive -- DROP : <detta> drop, fall -- DROWN : <drekkja (kt)> drown (dat.) -- DRUNK : <ofrǫlvi> excessively drunk -- DRUNK : <ǫlr> drunk (on ale) -- DUE : <gildi> recompense, return; payment due, tribute, offerings or compensation -- DURIN : <Durinn> Durin -- DURING : <á> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- DURING : <í> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- DUTY : <eiga> own, have, possess; have in marriage; have the power to; have claim to; have duty to -- DUTY : <kvǫð> duty -- DVALIN : <Dvalinn> Dvalin, Delayer -- DWARF : <dvergr> dwarf -- DWELL : <byggja (gð)> dwell, settle; build, inhabit -- DWELLING : <bygð> dwelling, settlement -- DWELLING : <salr> ground; hall; (pl.) a complex dwelling -- DWELLING : <staðr> place, spot, dwelling; part; way, respect -- DWELLING-PLACE : <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- DWELLS : <íviðia> 'she who dwells in the wood', witch, giantess -- E. : <hjalmstallr> the support of the helmet, i.e. the head -- E. : <valtæigr> hawk's ground, i.e. the arm -- E. : <ørlǫglauss> fateless (i.e. on whom fate has not yet been imposed) -- EACH : <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- EADMUND : <Eadmundr> Eadmund -- EAR : <eyra> ear -- EARL : <jarl> earl; free-born man, gentleman -- EARLIEST : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- EARLIEST : <fyrstr> first, foremost, earliest -- EARLY : <ár> early, in the early morning; of yore, long ago -- EARTH : <fold> earth, world -- EARTH : <grund> ground, bottom; broad surface; surface of the earth, earth -- EARTH : <jarðfastr> fixed in the earth -- EARTH : <jǫrð> earth, world; ground, soil -- EARTH : <mold> soil, earth (as substance) -- EARTHLY : <jarðligr> earthly; worldly -- EASILY : <vel> well, readily, easily -- EAST : <Austri> East -- EAST : <austan> from the east; east (of); bearing to the east -- EASTERNER : <austmaðr> Easterner, Norwegian -- EASY : <dæll> gentle, easy (to manage) -- EBB-TIDE : <fjara> ebb-tide, fore-shore, beach -- EDGE : <egg> edge -- EDGE : <þrǫmr> edge, rim (of a shield) -- EFFECT : <festa (t)> fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on -- EGIL : <Egill> Egil -- EIGHT : <átta> eight -- EIGHT : <sjau hundruð ok þrír tigir> eight hundred seventy -- EIGHTY : <áttrœðr> eighty years old -- EIKINSKJALD : <Eikinskialdi> Eikinskjald, Oakenshield -- EILIF : <Eilífr> Eilif -- EIRIK : <Eiríkr> Eirik -- ELF : <Álfr> Alf, Elf -- ELOQUENT : <snjallr> clever in speech, eloquent; brave -- EMBIGGEN : <mikla (að)> make great, 'embiggen'; (mid.) acquire fame -- EMBLA : <Embla> Embla -- EMMA : <Emma> Emma -- ENCHANT : <vitta (tt)> enchant, conjure -- ENCIRCLE : <sveipa> wrap, encircle -- ENCLOSED : <tún> courtyard, (enclosed) field; home meadow; (pl.) farmstead; abode -- ENCLOSURE : <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- ENCOMIUM : <hróðr (rs)> praise; encomium -- ENCOMIUM : <mærð> praise; encomium -- ENCOURAGE : <fýsa (t)> urge, encourage; (impers.) desire -- END : <lúka> finish, end; use up -- ENDOW : <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- ENDURANCE : <eljun> endurance -- ENDURE : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- ENEMY : <fjándmaðr> enemy -- ENEMY : <óvinr> enemy -- ENERGY : <atferð> behavior; energy -- ENGENDER : <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- ENGLAND : <Aðalsteinn> Athalstan, king of England -- ENGLAND : <England> England -- ENGLISH : <Englar> Angles, the English -- ENGRAVE : <grafa> dig; engrave, inlay -- ENJOY : <una> be contented; enjoy -- ENOUGH : <gnógr> enough; plenty (of) -- ENOUGH : <œrinn> sufficient, enough -- ENRAGED : <óðr> wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear; enraged; (name of Freyja's husband or lover) Od -- ENTERTAINMENT : <gaman> pleasure, entertainment -- ENTRANCED : <hugleikinn> entranced, in a trance; intense(ly) -- ENUMERATE : <telja (talða)> reckon, count; trace; number, enumerate; recount; declare -- ENUMERATION : <tal> enumeration, list; conversation -- EPISCOPAL : <bagall> episcopal staff, crozier -- EQUAL : <jafnlangr> of equal length -- EQUALLY : <jafnberr> equally exposed -- EQUALLY : <jafnspakir> equally wise -- EQUIVALENT : <þýða (dd)> make equivalent, interpret as -- ESTABLISH : <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- ESTATE : <bœr> farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town -- ESTEEM : <líknstafr> favorable statement, esteem, warm regard -- ESTIMATE : <ætlun> estimate, opinion -- EVE : <Eva> Eve -- EVE : <jóla-aptann> Christmas Eve -- EVEN : <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- EVENING : <aptann> evening -- EVENING : <kvelda (að)> (impers.) evening draws in -- EVENTS : <tíðendi> (pl.) events; tidings, news -- EVER : <jafnan> ever, always -- EVER : <æ> ever, always; forever -- EVERY : <allr> all, whole; every -- EVERY : <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- EVERYTHING : <hvatvetna> anything whatever; everything -- EVERYWHERE : <hvar> where; everywhere -- EVIL : <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- EVIL : <vanfarinn> in evil straits -- EXCEEDINGLY : <helzt> most willingly; most of all; exceedingly -- EXCELLENT : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- EXCEPT : <nema> unless; except -- EXCESSIVE : <ofdrykkja> excessive drinking, over-drinking -- EXCESSIVELY : <ofrǫlvi> excessively drunk -- EXCHANGE : <skipta (t)> divide, share; exchange; decide -- EXCHANGE : <við> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- EXERT : <brjóta> (trans.) break, destroy; distribute; (mid.) exert oneself -- EXIST : <sýna (d)> show; (mid.) appear to be, seem; exist -- EXISTENCE : <vera> resort, refuge; means of existence, way (of going on) -- EXPECT : <vara (ð)> (impers.) expect -- EXPECT : <vænta (t)> expect -- EXPECT : <ætla (að)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- EXPECTATION : <væni> expectation -- EXPEDIENT : <hœgr> comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skilful, agile -- EXPEDIENT : <ráð> advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement -- EXPEDITION : <fǫr> journey, expedition -- EXPENSIVE : <dýrr> dear, expensive; precious -- EXPOSED : <jafnberr> equally exposed -- EXPRESS : <lesa> express, concoct -- EXTEND : <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- EXTENSIVELY : <víða> widely, in many places; extensively -- EXTENT : <miǫtviðr> 'measure-tree', well-proportioned tree; tree which measures extent or limits of the world, tree which metes out fate -- EYE : <auga> eye -- EYFURA : <Eyfura> Eyfura -- FACING : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- FACULTIES : <óðr> mental faculties, voice -- FADE : <fǫlna (að)> grow pale; fade -- FAIL : <órœkja (kt)> neglect, fail to heed -- FAIR : <fagr (ran)> fair, beautiful -- FAIR : <réttr> right, correct; just, fair; unswerving; direct -- FAIR : <vænn> likely; fair to behold -- FAIR-HAIRED : <hárfagri> fair-haired -- FAITH : <trúa (ð)> believe, trust, have faith in -- FALL : <auðna (að)> (impers.) fall out by fate -- FALL : <detta> drop, fall -- FALL : <fall> fall -- FALL : <falla> fall, fall down; flow; be slain -- FALL : <hrata (að)> tumble, fall -- FALL : <hrøkkva> fall back -- FALSE : <fláráðr> false, deceitful -- FAME : <frami> advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability; growth, success, fame -- FAME : <mikla (að)> make great, 'embiggen'; (mid.) acquire fame -- FAMILY : <kind> kind, child; baby; offspring, progeny, family, kin -- FAMILY : <kynslóð> progeny, family line -- FAMILY : <ætt> direction, region; family, line; stock, tribe; ancestry -- FAMOUS : <mærr> famous -- FAR : <fjarri> far, far off; by no means -- FAR : <lengi> long; far; for a long time -- FAR : <útarliga> far out -- FARE : <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- FARM : <bœr> farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town -- FARM : <hof> farm, farmstead; temple -- FARM : <hús> house; room of house; (pl.) farm -- FARMER : <bóndason> son of a farmer, son of a yeoman -- FARMHOUSE : <bœr> farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town -- FARMSTEAD : <bœr> farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town -- FARMSTEAD : <hof> farm, farmstead; temple -- FARMSTEAD : <tún> courtyard, (enclosed) field; home meadow; (pl.) farmstead; abode -- FARMYARD : <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- FARTHER : <útar> farther out -- FARTHEST : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- FASHION : <leið> way, journey; road, path; manner, fashion -- FAST : <fast> fast, strongly, hard; certainly -- FAST : <fastr> firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous -- FAST : <halda> hold; hold fast, grip; keep; steer; protect; last, hold good, remain -- FASTEN : <festa (t)> fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on -- FASTEN : <kneppa (t)> fasten, button; pull -- FATE : <auðna (að)> (impers.) fall out by fate -- FATE : <lag> lay, order, disposition; (pl.) preordained fate -- FATE : <miǫtviðr> 'measure-tree', well-proportioned tree; tree which measures extent or limits of the world, tree which metes out fate -- FATE : <mjǫtuðr> dispenser of fate -- FATE : <spá> prophecy, song of fate -- FATE : <urðr> weird, (dire) fate; undoing, ruin; (pl.) fates, powers of fate; (name of a norn) -- FATE : <ørlǫg> (pl.) destiny, fate; war -- FATE : <ørlǫglauss> fateless (i.e. on whom fate has not yet been imposed) -- FATELESS : <ørlǫglauss> fateless (i.e. on whom fate has not yet been imposed) -- FATES : <urðr> weird, (dire) fate; undoing, ruin; (pl.) fates, powers of fate; (name of a norn) -- FATHER : <Burr> Bur, Odin's father -- FATHER : <Valfǫðr> Valfothr, Father of the Slain, Odin -- FATHER : <faðir> father -- FATHER : <fǫðurbróðir> father's brother, uncle -- FAULT : <vamm> blemish, fault -- FAVORABLE : <líknstafr> favorable statement, esteem, warm regard -- FEAR : <óhræddr> unafraid, without fear -- FEAR : <ótti> fear, dread -- FEAR : <óðr> wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear; enraged; (name of Freyja's husband or lover) Od -- FEAR : <ugga> fear -- FEARSOME : <ámáttugr> tremendously or overwhelmingly powerful; fearsome; loathesome -- FEAST : <jól> Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas -- FEATHER : <fjǫðr> feather -- FEED : <ala> give birth to, bear; feed -- FEED : <fœða (dd)> feed; nurse; rear, bring up -- FEEL : <kenna (d)> know; perceive; taste; feel; recognize; name, tell; teach -- FEET : <spyrna (d)> kick; place the feet -- FELL : <Ingólfsfell> Ingolf's Fell -- FELL : <fjall> mountain, fell -- FELLOW : <bokki> buck; fellow -- FELLOW : <drengr> (gallant) fellow; warrior -- FEN : <fen> bog, fen -- FENCE : <garðr> fence; enclosure, court, farmyard; dwelling-place -- FETCH : <sœkja> seek, go to fetch; visit; proceed -- FETTER : <fjǫtra (að)> fetter, bind -- FEW : <fár> few -- FIELD : <iǫrovǫllr> stony or gravelly field; Stonyvales -- FIELD : <tún> courtyard, (enclosed) field; home meadow; (pl.) farmstead; abode -- FIELD : <vǫllr> level ground, ground; plain; field -- FIELDS : <aurvangar> damp or muddy fields -- FIELDS : <bjǫð> land(s), (pl.) fields -- FIERCE : <atall> fierce, terrible -- FIGHT : <berja (barði)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- FIGHT : <berja (barði, bariðr)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- FIGHT : <sókn> fight, attack -- FIGHT : <vega> lift; smite, fight; kill, slay -- FILI : <Fíli> Fili -- FILL : <fylla (d)> fill; complete; increase -- FIND : <finna> find, meet; discover; notice; invent -- FIND : <hitta (tt)> hit upon; find, meet -- FIND : <leita (að)> seek, search for; find; try to go, go; attack -- FIND : <sjá> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- FIND : <spyrja (spurði)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- FIND : <vita (ssi)> know, be aware of; understand; know how (to); know of; find out -- FINISH : <gera (ð)> do, perform; act; make, build; finish -- FINISH : <lúka> finish, end; use up -- FINISHED : <gǫrr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- FINN : <Finnr> Finn -- FIRE : <bál> fire -- FIRE : <brenna (d)> (trans.) burn, light, set on fire -- FIRE : <brenna> (intrans.) burn, be on fire -- FIRE : <eldr> fire -- FIRE : <haugaeldr> fire from graves -- FIRE : <hyrr> fire -- FIREPLACE : <afl> hearth, fireplace or chimney of a forge -- FIREWOOD : <brandr> piece of firewood -- FIRM : <fastr> firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous -- FIRM : <standa> stand (firm); get up; take up a position; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh -- FIRST : <áðr> before, first; until -- FIRST : <fyrr> before; first; until -- FIRST : <fyrst> first -- FIRST : <fyrstr> first, foremost, earliest -- FIVE : <fimm> five -- FIXED : <jarðfastr> fixed in the earth -- FJALAR : <Fjalarr> Fjalar -- FLAME : <logi> flame -- FLEEING : <fljótr> swift, fleeing -- FLITTING : <sveimun> soaring, flitting -- FLOCK : <hjǫrð> herd, flock -- FLOOD : <flóð> flood -- FLOOD : <sævargangr> surge of sea; flood -- FLOOR : <gólf> floor -- FLOOR : <set> seat; raised floor along the sides of a hall -- FLOW : <ausa> ladle; pour; water; (mid.) stream, flow -- FLOW : <falla> fall, fall down; flow; be slain -- FLOW : <standa> stand (firm); get up; take up a position; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh -- FLOW : <þjóta> resound; rush, flow -- FLOWER : <blóm> flower -- FLY : <fleygja (gð)> let something fly; shoot; hurl -- FLY : <flúga> fly -- FLYING : <rjúka> reek, smoke; go flying, tumble -- FOAMING : <Ǫlfossá> Ale-Force (foaming waterfall) River -- FOLLOWER : <sveitungr> follower, retainer -- FOLLY : <dul> reserve, folly; conceit -- FOOD : <matr> food; meal -- FOOLISH : <heimskr> foolish -- FOOLISH : <ósnotr> unwise, foolish -- FOOLISH : <ósviðr> unwise, foolish -- FOOT : <fótr> foot; leg -- FORBID : <banna (að)> prohibit, forbid -- FORE-SHORE : <fjara> ebb-tide, fore-shore, beach -- FOREARM : <handleggr> arm; (pl.) upper arm and forearm -- FOREFATHERS : <langniðiar> (pl.) long line of forefathers or long line of descendants -- FOREHEAD : <blesóttr> having a white blaze on the forehead -- FOREIGN : <útlendr> foreign -- FOREMOST : <fyrstr> first, foremost, earliest -- FOREST : <skógr> wood, forest -- FOREST : <viðr> tree; beam; forest; wood -- FOREVER : <ey> forever; always -- FOREVER : <æ> ever, always; forever -- FORGE : <afl> hearth, fireplace or chimney of a forge -- FORGE : <smíða (að)> forge, make, build -- FORGET : <týna (d)> lose; forget (dat.) -- FORGETFULNESS : <óminni> non-memory, oblivion, forgetfulness -- FORM : <manlíkan> human likeness or form, being in human shape -- FORMERLY : <forðum> formerly, some time ago -- FORMING : <skíð> block of wood; wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame -- FORTRESS : <borg> castle, fortress; funeral pyre -- FORTUNATE : <sæll> fortunate, happy -- FORWARD : <fram> forward, on; away; out -- FORWARD : <framan> from the front side; forward -- FORWARD : <gægjask (ð)> bend forward to see, gaze, glare -- FORWARDS : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- FOSTER-BROTHER : <fóstri> foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling -- FOSTER-FATHER : <fóstri> foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling -- FOSTER-SON : <fóstri> foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling -- FOSTERLING : <fóstri> foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling -- FOUNDLING : <Fundinn> Fundin, Foundling -- FRAEG : <Frægr> Fraeg -- FRAME : <skíð> block of wood; wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame -- FRANKLIN : <bóndi> yeoman, franklin; husband -- FRANTIC : <œrr> mad, frantic -- FRAR : <Frár> Frar -- FREE : <lauss> loose, free -- FREE : <sjálfráðr> free -- FREE-BORN : <jarl> earl; free-born man, gentleman -- FREE-WILL : <sjálfvili> free-will -- FREEZE : <frjósa> freeze -- FREEZE : <kala> be cold, become cold, freeze -- FRENZIED : <óðr> wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear; enraged; (name of Freyja's husband or lover) Od -- FREQUENTLY : <opt> often, frequently; as often as possible, always -- FREYJA : <óðr> wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear; enraged; (name of Freyja's husband or lover) Od -- FRIEND : <vinr> friend; patron, leader -- FRIENDLY : <þióðlǫð> friendly invitation -- FRIGHTEN : <fæla (d)> frighten; (refl.) be frightened -- FRIGHTEN : <hræða (dd)> frighten; (refl.) be afraid of, be frightened -- FRIGHTEN : <skelfa (ð)> make tremble, frighten -- FRIGHTENED : <fæla (d)> frighten; (refl.) be frightened -- FRIGHTENED : <hræddr> afraid, frightened -- FRIGHTENED : <hræða (dd)> frighten; (refl.) be afraid of, be frightened -- FROLICSOME : <teitr> cheerful, merry; frolicsome -- FRONT : <framan> from the front side; forward -- FRONT : <framr> facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest -- FRONT : <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- FROSTI : <Frosti> Frosti, Frosty -- FROSTY : <Frosti> Frosti, Frosty -- FULL : <fjǫlmennask (t)> become peopled, full of people -- FULL : <fullr> full; in full swing -- FULLY : <gørr> more fully -- FUNDIN : <Fundinn> Fundin, Foundling -- FUNERAL : <borg> castle, fortress; funeral pyre -- FUR : <heðinn> fur cloak, coat -- FURTHER : <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- FURTHER : <fleiri> more; further, other -- GAIN : <eignask (að)> gain possession of, get for oneself -- GALLANT : <drengr> (gallant) fellow; warrior -- GAMES : <tefla (lð)> play at 'tables', play board games -- GANDALF : <Gandálfr> Gandalf, Staff-elf -- GAP : <gap> gap, gaping, chasm -- GAPING : <gap> gap, gaping, chasm -- GATE : <helgrind> gate of hell -- GAZE : <gægjask (ð)> bend forward to see, gaze, glare -- GELLIR : <Gellisson> son of Gellir -- GENEALOGY : <Ættar-tala> genealogy -- GENERAL : <laukr> leek; (general) plant -- GENTLE : <dæll> gentle, easy (to manage) -- GENTLEMAN : <jarl> earl; free-born man, gentleman -- GESTURES : <læti> (pl.) gestures, manner, bearing; voice -- GET : <eignask (að)> gain possession of, get for oneself -- GET : <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- GET : <geta> get, obtain; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; (with infin.) happen to (do); be obtainable; guess, suppose; relate, tell of -- GET : <ná (ð)> get, obtain -- GET : <njóta> benefit, get benefit from -- GET : <standa> stand (firm); get up; take up a position; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh -- GHOST : <draugr> undead man, ghost -- GHOST : <haugbúi> ghost, undead man -- GIANT : <Brimir> sword; (name of a sword); (name of a giant) -- GIANT : <Ymir> Ymir, a giant -- GIANT : <iǫtunn> giant -- GIANT : <jǫtunn> giant -- GIANT : <þurs> giant -- GIANTESS : <íviðia> 'she who dwells in the wood', witch, giantess -- GIANTS : <iǫtunheimr> realm of the giants -- GIFT : <gipt> gift -- GIFT : <gjǫf> gift -- GINNAR : <Ginnarr> Ginnar, Betrayer -- GIVE : <ala> give birth to, bear; feed -- GIVE : <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- GIVE : <fá> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- GIVE : <gefa> give; give in marriage; (impers.) be obtainable -- GIVE : <gjalda> repay, requite; pay compensation; give something as recompense for something; atone or pay for -- GIVE : <hǫrfa (að)> recoil, give way -- GIVE : <kikna (að)> give way at the knees -- GIVE : <leggja> lay, place, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; thrust, throw; make; give -- GIVE : <selja> give; sell -- GIVE : <veita (tt)> grant, give; help; pay, yield; (recip.) back one another -- GIVER : <gefandi> giver, host -- GIZUR : <Gizurr> Gizur -- GLAD : <fagna (að)> be glad; rejoice at, welcome -- GLAM : <Glámr> Glam -- GLANCE : <augabragð> wink, sidelong glance -- GLANCE : <tillit> glance, look -- GLARE : <gægjask (ð)> bend forward to see, gaze, glare -- GLEAM : <skína> shine, gleam -- GLOI : <Glói> Gloi, Glow -- GLOOMY : <ókátr> depressed, gloomy -- GLORY : <metnaðr> glory -- GLOW : <Glói> Gloi, Glow -- GO : <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- GO : <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- GO : <hvarfa (að)> walk, go -- GO : <leita (að)> seek, search for; find; try to go, go; attack -- GO : <líða> move, go; pass, progress -- GO : <ráða> advise, counsel; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way -- GO : <rjúka> reek, smoke; go flying, tumble -- GO : <sœkja> seek, go to fetch; visit; proceed -- GO : <vitja (að)> go to, visit -- GOD : <áss> god --