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Tocharian A: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<ākälṣäl> (one) to be taught, student -- <āral> end (?) -- <ārkiśoṣi> world -- <ārwar> ready -- <ārṣal> serpent -- <ālās> slothful -- <ālāsune> sloth -- <ālak> other -- <āṣānik> worthy (of praise) -- <āṣāṃ> worthy -- <āsuk> over -- <akäṃtsune> possession -- <akälyme> under the control of -- <appärmāt> despicable -- <amok> art, skill -- <amokäts> artist, artisan -- <amokṣi> artistic -- <ats> (emphasizing particle), even, indeed -- <i-> go -- <ekrorñe> poverty -- <ents-> seize -- <empele> awful -- <el> gift -- <okät> eight -- <oki> like, as -- <oppal> lotus -- <omäskeṃ> evil -- <ort> friend (?) -- <ortune> friendship -- <olyi> ship -- <oṣeñi> by night -- <-k> (emphatic particle), indeed, even -- <kācke> joy -- <kāruṇik> compassionate, merciful -- <kārp-> step down to, descend -- <kāryap> harm -- <Kāśyap> Kasyap, name of a Buddha -- <kāsu> good -- <kätk-> go beyond, exceed -- <käm-> come -- <kärṣt-> cut off -- <kälk-> go -- <kälp> attain -- <kälp-> acquire, attain -- <kälp-> attain -- <kälyme> direction, path, path to heaven -- <käs-> expire, die -- <käṣṣi> teacher -- <Kanakamuni> Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha -- <kappāñ> (pl.) cotton plant (?) -- <kayurṣ> bull -- <kalpavṛkäṣ> "wish-tree" -- <kuprene> when, if -- <kuma...> ... (name of a type of metrical verse) -- <kuyalte> because, for -- <kuryar> commerce -- <kursär> mile, vehicle -- <kusne> which -- <koṃ> day, sun -- <kosne> as, as much (as), as often (as) -- <kospreṃ> how much?, how far? -- <kñuk> neck -- <knā-> know -- <Krakasundi> Krakasundi, name of a Buddha -- <krop-> gather -- <klu> rice -- <kluṃts> thread -- <klyu> fame -- <cintāmaṇi> 'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone) -- <cwal> beginning (?) -- <Jambudvip> Jambudvipa -- <tā-> set, lay -- <tāk-> be -- <täpreṃ> so (much) -- <täm-> beget, produce -- <tämne> so, thus -- <tämyo> by this, from this, therefore -- <taṃne> so -- <tampewāts> powerful -- <toriṃ> finally -- <tkaṃ> earth -- <tmāṃ> ten thousand -- <tmäṣ> thereupon, then -- <träṅk-> say -- <trit> third -- <tre, tri> three -- <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- <dvip> island -- <ñātse> hardship, danger -- <ñäkci> godly, heavenly -- <ñu> nine -- <ñemi> jewel -- <ñemiṣi> related to jewels, of jewels -- <ñom> name -- <ñkät> god -- <nāk> serpent -- <nākäm> blame -- <näk-> perish, destroy -- <näm-> bow, bend -- <näṣ, ñuk> I -- <nam> bow, obeisance -- <nas-> be -- <niṣpal> domain, holdings -- <nu-> roar -- <nu> now, even, anyway -- <-ne> (indefinite marker), (relative marker) -- <neṣ> earlier, prior -- <pāk> part -- <pākär> overtly, manifestly, visibly -- <pās-> guard -- <pät> over, beyond (?) -- <päñ> five -- <pänt> fifth -- <pärko> advantage, rise -- <pälk-> shine -- <pälk-> see -- <pält> blade, leaf -- <pältsäk> thought, opinion -- <pat> or -- <puk> all, every, whole -- <puk, pont-> all, every, whole -- <pukäl> year -- <-puklyi> yearly, pertaining to the year -- <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity -- <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-dignity -- <puttiśparṣi> relating to Buddha-lordship -- <pe> also -- <penu> also; even, in fact -- <poke> arm -- <pot-> flatter -- <poto> flattery, obeisance -- <por> fire -- <ptāñkät (pättāñkät)> Buddha(lord) -- <pyutk-> make come into being, produce -- <pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)> barrier, opposing part; the opposite -- <praṅk> island -- <praṣt> time -- <praski> anxiety, dread -- <pruccamo> excellent, superior -- <psäl> chaff -- <Baladvip> Baladvipa (name of an island) -- <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- <mā> no, not -- <māk> much -- <māski> hard -- <mäṃtne (mätne)> as, so as, so as to -- <mäsk-> be located, be -- <mar> no, not -- <mok> old -- <mñe> certitude, assurance (?) -- <yāt-> be able, be capable -- <yām-> make -- <yām> make -- <yärk> reverence -- <yärm> measure -- <yäslu> enemy -- <yakäṣ> (type of) demon -- <yuk-> conquer, overcome -- <yetwe> jewelry, decoration -- <yom-> attain -- <ykoṃ> by day -- <ynāñmune> esteem -- <ypic> full, complete -- <ype> land -- <ymār> quickly -- <ywārckā (ywārśkā)> between, among, in the middle of -- <yṣaṃ> ditch, moat -- <rākṣats> (type of) monster -- <räk-> cover oneself, be covered -- <ritw-> coalesce -- <lāñci> kingly, of a king -- <läm-> sit -- <lame> place, location -- <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- <lo> away -- <lyā-> wipe away -- <lyäk> thief -- <lyom> mud -- <Vipaśyi> Vipasyin, name of a Buddha -- <Viśvabʰū> Visvabhu, name of a Buddha -- <wät> second -- <wär> water -- <wärp-> enjoy -- <wärṣṣälts> strong, energetic -- <wäl-> die -- <wäl> king -- <wälts> thousand -- <wäs-> clothe -- <wäs-> give -- <waṣt> house -- <waste> protection -- <wik-> decrease -- <wu, we> two -- <weñ-> say -- <wkäṃ> manner, type -- <wmār> jewel, pearl -- <wram> thing, matter -- <wras(om)> (living) creature, man -- <wrasom> living being, human, man -- <wles> service, work, activity -- <wles-> accomplish, perform -- <wles-> perform -- <wles> service, work, action -- <wles> perform -- <wsāl> garment -- <śāwe> (only plural) big -- <śāwe> (pl. forms only) big -- <śäk> ten -- <Śikʰi> Shikhin, name of a Buddha -- <Śilpavāṃ> Shilpavant (name of a prince) -- <śu> over -- <śu-, śwā-> eat -- <Śuriṣin> (name of a type of metrical verse) -- <śemäl> cattle, livestock -- <śol> life -- <śkā> still, yet, moreover -- <śkaṃ> and, also, and also -- <śkaṃ> and, also -- <śtärt> fourth -- <śtwar> four -- <śla> (together) with -- <ṣ-> be -- <ṣāmner> novice -- <ṣäk> six -- <ṣakk> certainly -- <ṣkäṣt> sixth -- <ṣñaṣṣe> relation, relative -- <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- <ṣpät> seven -- <Sāgare> Sagara (name of a king) -- <sāmudtär> ocean -- <sārtʰ> caravan, campaign, troop -- <sätk-> spread -- <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it -- <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it, they -- <särki> thereupon, later -- <sälp-> glow -- <säs, sās, täṣ> this, this here -- <sam> same (as) -- <saṃ> some, any -- <saṃsār> cycle of birth -- <Sarvārtʰasiddʰe> Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva -- <sas, säṃ> one -- <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- <se> son -- <sopi> net -- <skam> always -- <sne> without -- <spānte> confidently -- <spārtw-> turn (intrans.), be located -- <speṣi> rock-crystalline, of rock crystal -- <tsäm-> grow -- <tsmār> root -- <tsraṣi> energetic -- <tsraṣṣune> energy -- <tsru> few, small --

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