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Tocharian B: Base Form Dictionary

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

<akālk> wish -- <aśrām> ashram, the abode of an ascetic -- <āketke, āktike> wonderful; (subst.) wonder, wonderful thing -- <ājivike> a Jainist religious mendicant -- <ājivīke> a Jainist religious mendicant -- <ārttalñe> pleasure, love -- <āśirvāt> benediction -- <i-> go, travel -- <Indre> Indra (proper name of a god) -- <iprer> sky, air -- <istak> suddenly -- <īke> place, location; position -- <īte> full -- <upage> Upaga, a proper name -- <Upage> Upaga (proper name) -- <eṅk-> take, grip, seize; conclude -- <eneṅka> within, herein, among -- <epiṅkte> (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; (noun) interval -- <epiṅkte> (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; meanwhile, in the meantime; (noun) interval -- <epe> or; otherwise -- <ere> appearance, color (of complexion) -- <eṣerñe> related as sisters -- <etsuwai> towards, near to -- <ai-> give -- <aiśamñe> wisdom -- <aise> power?; surplus, excess?; pot, bowl -- <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel -- <orotstse, wrotstse> great, big, large -- <olyapo> (adv.) more; (conj.) rather (than) -- <ost> house -- <ka> (emphasizing particle) just; scarcely; already; only; (with adverbs of motion) very -- <kartse, krent> (adj.) good, beautiful; (noun) good, welfare -- <kātk-> rejoice, be glad -- <kārp-> descend, come down, step down -- <k(ä)> (emphasizing particle) -- <kän-> come to pass (of a wish); be realized; (caus.) fulfill (a wish) -- <käm-> come -- <kärs-> know, understand, recognize -- <kärst-> cut off, cut down, terminate; tear; destroy utterly -- <käl-> lead, bring -- <kälp-> find, get, obtain, achieve -- <käly-, stäm-> (intr.) stand, stay, stand still; last; (caus.) establish, fix (in place) -- <keṃ> earth, ground -- <kauc> high, up, above -- <ksa> some, any -- <cākkär> wheel; cakra, wheel as mystical symbol -- <celeññ-> appear -- <ñaś, wes> I, me; (plural) we -- <ñäś (ñiś)> I -- <ñor> below, beneath, under; down -- <tane, tne> here, there -- <tapre> high; fat -- <täl-> uphold, keep raised; (caus.) raise, lift; acquire -- <tuwe, yes> thou; you -- <totka> few, little, short, small -- <dakṣiṇāke> worthy of sacrifice -- <Nandābala> Nandabala (proper name) -- <nandikāwart> nandikavarta (designation of a mystic diagram) -- <Nānda> Nanda (proper name) -- <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) -- <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have -- <nai> (intensifying particle) indeed, then, surely -- <no> (adversative) however, but; (al)though; (connective, in if-clauses) then -- <naumiyeṣṣe> pertaining to jewels, bejeweled -- <nta> (intensifying particle, usu. in negative clauses) -- <parna> (adv., postposition) outside; (w. abl.) beyond, out from; (w. perl.) aside from; (prepos., postpos.) except, absent -- <päk-> (medp.) become ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (intrans.); (act.) make ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (trans.) -- <pälsk-> think about, consider -- <päst> away, back; (also used with verbs with a perfectivizing force) -- <pi> really, indeed (used to emphasize questions and commands) -- <pintwāt> alms -- <pilycalñe> burning, inflammation; pain, torture, mortification; penance -- <peñiyatstse> splendid -- <po> (indeclinable/declinable adj.) all, every, each, complete; (noun) everything, all -- <postäṃ> (adv.) finally, afterwards; (indecl. adj.) latter -- <pyutk-> establish, bring into being, create; (intrans.) become ready -- <pränts-> spatter -- <Bra(h)m-näkte> (the god) Brahma -- <bʰājaṃ> vessel, pot -- <maṅkāläṣṣe> pertaining to good luck, bliss, health -- <mañu> desire -- <mant> so; thus -- <maṃtstsaś> (with loc.) under(neath) -- <mā> (simple negation and prohibition) not, no; (quasi-prefix) un- -- <mäkte> (comparative) as; (final) so, in order that; (causal) because; (temporal) as, while; (manner) how; (interrogative) how? -- <mäsk-> exchange -- <mit-> go; set out (as 'go' it provides preterite plural to i-) -- <mutk-> strengthen?; pour, spill -- <mutkāntse> (unit of liquid measure) -- <-me> (enclitic pronoun referring to first, second, or thir persons plural) -- <-meṃ> (ending of the ablative) -- <yakne> way, manner, custom, habit; (as second member of a compound with a number) -fold -- <yäp-> enter; set (of the sun); (caus.) cause to enter -- <yäm-> achieve, obtain; reach -- <ytārye> road; way -- <Ylaiñäkte> Indra -- <ysapar(sa)> near by -- <rano> (joins clauses and independent sentences, usu. in second position) also, in addition; even though; (neither...) nor; however -- <rām-> compare -- <rit-> direct (someone, with obl.); demand (something of someone, with obl. of thing and abl.); (medp.) seek, long for something/someone (with obl.); seek/long (to do something, with infin.) -- <rṣākäññe> pertaining to a rshi -- <rṣāke> sage, (inspired) seer -- <lāl-> exert oneself, strive for; (caus.) tire (trans.), subjugate -- <läk-> see, look at, catch sight of; visit -- <läk-> see; look at; catch sight of; visit -- <lä-n-t-> go out -- <lau> (with verbs of rest) afar; (with verbs of motion) far; very -- <laukito> stranger -- <lkālläññe> sight, insight -- <wartto> forest -- <wärp-> partake; undergo, suffer, enjoy -- <wärpauca> partaker, one who partakes -- <winā-sk-> honor, worship -- <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called -- <were> smell -- <weṣ> guise, appearance -- <śāstär> (sacred) book, shastra -- <śu-> eat (at); consume, devour -- <śūke> taste; sap; liquid, juice -- <-ś(c)> (allative case ending) -- <śpālmeṃ> superior, excellent -- <ṣañ> own (reflexive on the topic of the phrase or sentence); (n.) nature, characteristic -- <ṣaḍap-ṣalywe-malkwer> (name of a meter of 4 by 18 syllables) -- <ṣar> hand -- <ṣäm-, läm-> sit; remain, be present; subside -- <ṣärp-> explain to, inform; teach; indicate, guide -- <ṣe, sana> (numeral adj.) one; same; some; (preposition/adverb) together -- <ṣerśka> (little) sister -- <ṣotri> sign, mark, (manifestation of) action -- <ṣpä> and (conjoins both clauses and words) -- <sam(p), som(p), tam(p)> that (one) -- <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it -- <se, sā, te> this -- <seṃ, sāṃ, teṃ> this (one) -- <stām> tree -- <snai> without -- <spʰarir> crystal -- <sränk-> boil -- <svastik> swastika (a symbol denoting good luck) -- <tsäṅk-> rise, raise oneself up; stand up, arise -- <tsu-> (act.) cohere, adhere; (medp.) adhere, stick, cling, attach oneself; (caus.) make cohere, add to --

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