Tocharian Online

Tocharian B: Master Glossary

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.


akālk - noun; masculine nominative singular <akālk> wish aśrāmne - noun; masculine locative singular <aśrām> ashram, the abode of an ascetic āktike - adjective; indeclinable <āketke, āktike> wonderful; (subst.) wonder, wonderful thing ājivike - noun; masculine nominative singular <ājivike> a Jainist religious mendicant ārttalñe - abstract; masculine oblique singular <ārttalñe> pleasure, love āśirvāt - noun; singular oblique <āśirvāt> benediction ite - adjective; indeclinable <īte> full Indre - noun; masculine nominative singular <Indre> Indra (proper name of a god) ipprer-ne - noun; masculine locative singular <iprer> sky, air istak - adverb; <istak> suddenly upage - noun; masculine nominative singular <upage> Upaga, a proper name Upage - noun; masculine nominative singular <Upage> Upaga (proper name) Upagentse - noun; masculine genitive singular <Upage> Upaga (proper name) eṅkuwa - preterite participle; feminine nominative plural <eṅk-> take, grip, seize; conclude eneṅka - adverb; <eneṅka> within, herein, among epiṅkte - noun; oblique singular <epiṅkte> (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; (noun) interval epiṅktene - noun; neuter locative singular <epiṅkte> (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; meanwhile, in the meantime; (noun) interval epe - conjunction; <epe> or; otherwise erene - noun; masculine locative singular <ere> appearance, color (of complexion) eṣerñāna - adjective; feminine oblique plural <eṣerñe> related as sisters etsuwai - adverb; <etsuwai> towards, near to aiśamñe - noun; neuter oblique singular <aiśamñe> wisdom aiścer - verb present IX; 2 plural active <ai-> give aise - noun; masculine oblique singular <aise> power?; surplus, excess?; pot, bowl aisemeṃ - noun; masculine ablative singular <aise> power?; surplus, excess?; pot, bowl aiskem - verb present IX; 1 plural active <ai-> give oṅkarñai - noun; feminine oblique singular of <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel oṅko - noun; feminine nominative singular <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel oṅkorñai - noun; feminine oblique singular <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel oṅkorñ(ai) - noun; feminine oblique singular of <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel oṅkorño - noun; feminine nominative singular <oṅkarño, oṅkorño> porridge, rice gruel olyapo - adverb; <olyapo> (adv.) more; (conj.) rather (than) ostameṃ - noun I 2; alternating ablative singular of <ost> house ka - particle; <ka> (emphasizing particle) just; scarcely; already; only; (with adverbs of motion) very kakkāccuwa - preterite participle; feminine nominative plural <kātk-> rejoice, be glad kartstsa - adjective I; feminine nominative singular <kartse, krent> (adj.) good, beautiful; (noun) good, welfare kalas - verb imperative I; 2 plural active <käl-> lead, bring kallālle - verb gerundive II; masculine nominative singular <kälp-> find, get, obtain, achieve kārpa - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <kārp-> descend, come down, step down kärstātene - verb preterite I; 3 singular mediopassive <kärst-> cut off, cut down, terminate; tear; destroy utterly + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) kekenusa - preterite participle; feminine nominative singular <kän-> come to pass (of a wish); be realized; (caus.) fulfill (a wish) kentsa - noun; feminine perlative singular <keṃ> earth, ground kauś - adverb; <kauc> high, up, above kca - pronoun adjective; oblique <ksa> some, any krenta - adjective I; feminine oblique plural <kartse, krent> (adj.) good, beautiful; (noun) good, welfare cākkär - noun; nominative singular <cākkär> wheel; cakra, wheel as mystical symbol cāla - verb causal preterite II; 3 singular active <täl-> uphold, keep raised; (caus.) raise, lift; acquire cisa - pronoun; masculine/feminine perlative singular <tuwe, yes> thou; you ce - demonstrative pronoun; masculine oblique singular <se, sā, te> this celeñiyentär - verb imperfect; 3 plural mediopassive of <celeññ-> appear cau - demonstrative pronoun; masculine oblique singular of <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it cau-k - demonstrative adjective; masculine oblique singular <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it + particle; <k(ä)> (emphasizing particle) cwi - demonstrative pronoun; masculine genitive singular <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it cwim - demonstrative pronoun; masculine genitive singular <sam(p), som(p), tam(p)> that (one) ñi - pronoun; masculine/feminine genitive singular of <ñäś (ñiś)> I ñiś - pronoun; masculine/feminine singular nominative of <ñäś (ñiś)> I ñiś - pronoun; masculine/feminine nominative singular of <ñäś (ñiś)> I ñissa - pronoun; masculine/feminine perlative singular of <ñaś, wes> I, me; (plural) we ñor - adverb; <ñor> below, beneath, under; down ññissa - pronoun; masculine/feminine perlative singular of <ñaś, wes> I, me; (plural) we tañ - pronoun; masculine/feminine genitive singular <tuwe, yes> thou; you tane - adverb; <tane, tne> here, there tappre - adverb; <tapre> high; fat tam-meṃ - demonstrative pronoun; neuter ablative singular <sam(p), som(p), tam(p)> that (one) taläṣṣeñca - verb present participle causal; feminine nominative singular <täl-> uphold, keep raised; (caus.) raise, lift; acquire tā - demonstrative pronoun; feminine oblique singular <se, sā, te> this tāu - demonstrative pronoun; feminine oblique singular of <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it tāka - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have tākaṃ - verb subjunctive V; 3 singular active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have tākaṃ - verb subjunctive V; 3 plural active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have tāy - demonstrative pronoun; feminine genitive singular <se, sā, te> this tāṃ - demonstrative adjective; feminine oblique singular <seṃ, sāṃ, teṃ> this (one) teṃ - demonstrative adjective; neuter oblique singular <seṃ, sāṃ, teṃ> this (one) totka - adverb; indeclinable <totka> few, little, short, small totka - adjective; indeclinable <totka> few, little, short, small toy - demonstrative pronoun; feminine nominative plural <se, sā, te> this toyna - demonstrative adjective; feminine oblique plural <seṃ, sāṃ, teṃ> this (one) dakṣiṇāke - adjective I 1; masculine nominative singular <dakṣiṇāke> worthy of sacrifice dakṣiṇākeṃ - adjective I 1; masculine oblique singular <dakṣiṇāke> worthy of sacrifice Nandābala - noun; feminine nominative singular <Nandābala> Nandabala (proper name) nandikāwart - noun; nominative singular <nandikāwart> nandikavarta (designation of a mystic diagram) Nānda - noun; feminine nominative singular <Nānda> Nanda (proper name) nesau - verb present I; 1 singular active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have nai - particle; <nai> (intensifying particle) indeed, then, surely no - enclitic conjunction; <no> (adversative) however, but; (al)though; (connective, in if-clauses) then naumyeṣṣe - adjective I; masculine oblique singular <naumiyeṣṣe> pertaining to jewels, bejeweled nta - particle; <nta> (intensifying particle, usu. in negative clauses) parna - adverb; <parna> (adv., postposition) outside; (w. abl.) beyond, out from; (w. perl.) aside from; (prepos., postpos.) except, absent palska - preterite I; 3 singular active <pälsk-> think about, consider päksemane - present participle mediopassive; masculine nominative singular <päk-> (medp.) become ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (intrans.); (act.) make ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (trans.) päs - particle; <päst> away, back; (also used with verbs with a perfectivizing force) pi - particle; <pi> really, indeed (used to emphasize questions and commands) pintwāt - noun; masculine oblique singular <pintwāt> alms pinwāt - noun; masculine oblique singular <pintwāt> alms pilycalñene - abstract; masculine locative singular <pilycalñe> burning, inflammation; pain, torture, mortification; penance purwar - verb imperative; 2 singular mediopassive <wärp-> partake; undergo, suffer, enjoy peñiyacce - adjective I; masculine oblique singular <peñiyatstse> splendid petes - verb imperative VI; 2 plural active <ai-> give po - adverb; masculine singular nominative of <po> (indeclinable/declinable adj.) all, every, each, complete; (noun) everything, all postäṃ - adverb; <postäṃ> (adv.) finally, afterwards; (indecl. adj.) latter pyautka - verb preterite II; 3 singular active <pyutk-> establish, bring into being, create; (intrans.) become ready präntsitär - verb imperfect; 3 singular mediopassive of <pränts-> spatter bramñikte - noun; masculine nominative singular <Bra(h)m-näkte> (the god) Brahma bramñikteś - noun; masculine allative singular <Bra(h)m-näkte> (the god) Brahma bʰājaṃne - noun; alternating locative singular <bʰājaṃ> vessel, pot maṅkāläṣṣana - adjective 1; feminine nominative plural <maṅkāläṣṣe> pertaining to good luck, bliss, health mañu - noun; nominative singular <mañu> desire mant - conjunction; <mant> so; thus maṃtstsaś - adverb; <maṃtstsaś> (with loc.) under(neath) masa - preterite I /III; 3 sg act <i-> go, travel mā - particle; <mā> (simple negation and prohibition) not, no; (quasi-prefix) un- mäkte - conjunction; <mäkte> (comparative) as; (final) so, in order that; (causal) because; (temporal) as, while; (manner) how; (interrogative) how? mutkāntseś - noun; allative <mutkāntse> (unit of liquid measure) mutkārene - verb preterite I; 3 plural active <mutk-> strengthen?; pour, spill + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) memisku - preterite participle; masculine nominative singular <mäsk-> exchange maitar - verb preterite I; 3 plural active <mit-> go; set out (as 'go' it provides preterite plural to i-) maitare - verb preterite I; 3 plural active <mit-> go; set out (as 'go' it provides preterite plural to i-) myāskate - verb preterite II; 3 singular mediopassive <mäsk-> exchange msāne - preterite I /III; 3 sg act <i-> go, travel + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) yaknesa - noun; masculine perlative singular <yakne> way, manner, custom, habit; (as second member of a compound with a number) -fold yinmāṣṣäṃ - verb present X; 3 singular active <yäm-> achieve, obtain; reach yey - verb imperfect; 3 singular active of <i-> go, travel yey - verb imperfect; 3 singular active <i-> go, travel yopar - verb preterite III; 3 plural active <yäp-> enter; set (of the sun); (caus.) cause to enter yke-ne - noun; alternating locative singular <īke> place, location; position ytāri - noun; feminine oblique singular <ytārye> road; way ynemane - verb present participle mediopassive; masculine nominative singular <i-> go, travel ylaiñikte - noun; masculine nominative singular <Ylaiñäkte> Indra ysaparsa - adverb; <ysapar(sa)> near by rano - conjunction; <rano> (joins clauses and independent sentences, usu. in second position) also, in addition; even though; (neither...) nor; however rāmate - verb preterite I; 3 singular mediopassive <rām-> compare ritasi - verb; infinitive <rit-> direct (someone, with obl.); demand (something of someone, with obl. of thing and abl.); (medp.) seek, long for something/someone (with obl.); seek/long (to do something, with infin.) rṣāka - noun; masculine vocative singular <rṣāke> sage, (inspired) seer rṣākäññe - adjective I; masculine oblique singular <rṣākäññe> pertaining to a rshi rṣāke - noun; masculine nominative singular <rṣāke> sage, (inspired) seer rṣākeṃ - noun; masculine oblique singular <rṣāke> sage, (inspired) seer rṣākeṃne - noun; masculine locative plural <rṣāke> sage, (inspired) seer lalālu - verb preterite participle; masculine nominative singular <lāl-> exert oneself, strive for; (caus.) tire (trans.), subjugate lau - adverb; <lau> (with verbs of rest) afar; (with verbs of motion) far; very laukito - noun; masculine nominative singular <laukito> stranger lkālñesa - abstract; masculine perlative singular <lkālläññe> sight, insight lkoyentär - verb optative; 3 plural mediopassive <läk-> see; look at; catch sight of; visit ltu - verb preterite participle; masculine nominative singular of <lä-n-t-> go out lmoṣ - preterite participle; masculine nominative plural <ṣäm-, läm-> sit; remain, be present; subside lyakāre - verb preterite I; 3 plural active <läk-> see; look at; catch sight of; visit lyama - preterite I; 3 singular active <ṣäm-, läm-> sit; remain, be present; subside lyāka - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <läk-> see, look at, catch sight of; visit warttone - noun; masculine locative singular <wartto> forest wärpauca - agent noun II 3; masculine nominative singular <wärpauca> partaker, one who partakes wināṣṣar-ne - verb preterite IV; 3 plural active <winā-sk-> honor, worship + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) weñā-me-ś - verb preterite V; 3 singular active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-me> (enclitic pronoun referring to first, second, or thir persons plural) + particle; <-ś(c)> (allative case ending) weñāmeś - verb preterite V; 3 singular active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-me> (enclitic pronoun referring to first, second, or thir persons plural) + particle; <-ś(c)> (allative case ending) weñāre - verb preterite V; 3 plural active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called weñāreneś - verb preterite V; 3 plural active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) + particle; <-ś(c)> (allative case ending) werene - noun; masculine locative singular <were> smell weṣ - noun; masculine oblique singular <weṣ> guise, appearance weṣṣi - verb imperfect; 3 singular active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called wes - pronoun; masculine/feminine nominative plural of <ñaś, wes> I, me; (plural) we wesanmeṃ - pronoun; masculine/feminine genitive plural <ñaś, wes> I, me; (plural) we + enclitic; <-meṃ> (ending of the ablative) weskeṃ-ne-ś - verb present IX; 3 plural active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) + particle; <-ś(c)> (allative case ending) wñār-ne - verb preterite V; 3 plural active <we-> speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) wrocce - adjective; masculine oblique singular <orotstse, wrotstse> great, big, large śama - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <käly-, stäm-> (intr.) stand, stay, stand still; last; (caus.) establish, fix (in place) śarsa - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <kärs-> know, understand, recognize śāstär-mpa - noun; neuter commitative singular <śāstär> (sacred) book, shastra śilāre-ne - verb preterite I; 3 plural active <käl-> lead, bring + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) śukene - noun; alternating locative singular <śūke> taste; sap; liquid, juice śuwaṃ - verb present V; 3 singular active <śu-> eat (at); consume, devour śem - verb preterite VI; 3 singular active <käm-> come śpālmeṃ - adjective; indeclinable <śpālmeṃ> superior, excellent śwālya - verb gerundive I; feminine nominative singular <śu-> eat (at); consume, devour śwātsi - verb; infinitive <śu-> eat (at); consume, devour - enclitic conjunction; <ṣpä> and (conjoins both clauses and words) ṣañ - adjective; indeclinable <ṣañ> own (reflexive on the topic of the phrase or sentence); (n.) nature, characteristic ṣaḍap-ṣalywe-malkwerne - noun; locative singular <ṣaḍap-ṣalywe-malkwer> (name of a meter of 4 by 18 syllables) ṣarnene - noun; masculine locative dual <ṣar> hand ṣe - adverb; <ṣe, sana> (numeral adj.) one; same; some; (preposition/adverb) together ṣeym - verb imperfect; 1 singular active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have ṣerpsa-me - verb preterite III; 3 singular active <ṣärp-> explain to, inform; teach; indicate, guide ṣerśka - noun; feminine nominative singular <ṣerśka> (little) sister ṣerśkana - noun; feminine vocative plural <ṣerśka> (little) sister ṣotr-una - noun; neuter nominative plural of <ṣotri> sign, mark, (manifestation of) action ṣotruna - noun; neuter oblique plural of <ṣotri> sign, mark, (manifestation of) action ṣotrunasa - noun; neuter perlative plural of <ṣotri> sign, mark, (manifestation of) action sam - demonstrative adjective; masculine nominative singular <sam(p), som(p), tam(p)> that (one) sā - demonstrative pronoun; feminine nominative singular <se, sā, te> this sāu - demonstrative pronoun; feminine nominative singular <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it su - demonstrative pronoun; masculine nominative singular <su, sāu, tu> the; he, she, it se - demonstrative pronoun; masculine nominative singular <se, sā, te> this stām - noun; alternating oblique singular <stām> tree ste - verb copula present; 3 singular active <nes-> be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have snai - preposition; <snai> without spʰarīräṣṣe - adjective I; masculine oblique singular <spʰarir> crystal srañciyeṃ - verb imperfect; 3 plural active of <sränk-> boil svastik - noun; nominative singular <svastik> swastika (a symbol denoting good luck) tsäṅkā-ne - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <tsäṅk-> rise, raise oneself up; stand up, arise + enclitic pronoun; indeclinable <-ne> (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun) tsuwa - verb preterite I; 3 singular active <tsu-> (act.) cohere, adhere; (medp.) adhere, stick, cling, attach oneself; (caus.) make cohere, add to