Tocharian Online

Tocharian A: English Meaning Index

This English Index lists, in alphabetical order, seemingly significant words used in the "general meaning" glosses of Base Forms underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each English word, base forms having that word in their general meanings are shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms sharing a general English meaning word. In order to reduce clutter in this index, certain high-frequency English "function" words are ignored unless there are no "content" words in the meaning.

This index was created by software, not by human hand, using lesson materials authored with very few constraints on the expression of "meaning" other than it being in English. Selecting significant words from free-form text via software is a notoriously difficult task. For example, while most meanings in these lessons are expressed as "glosses," some or parts may be comments directed toward the human reader, who is expected to discern the difference. Computer software cannot yet make such subtle linguistic distinctions, so all words in a meaning are treated alike. With few exceptions, then, all words are indexed. The results are neither produced nor presented with any claims to superior linguistic sensitivity, but at least the full meaning texts are shown for your inspection and judgment. Modest effort was invested in tuning the software to ignore [apparently] superfluous, high-frequency words (e.g., the preposition "of") that, in the presence of [apparently] more important words, contribute little or no useful information to an index; unfortunately this may result in some words, in some contexts, being unfairly omitted.




1ST : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- 2ND : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- 3RD : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- ABLE : <yāt-> be able, be capable -- ACCOMPLISH : <wles-> accomplish, perform -- ACQUIRE : <kälp-> acquire, attain -- ACTION : <wles> service, work, action -- ACTIVITY : <wles> service, work, activity -- ADVANTAGE : <pärko> advantage, rise -- ALL : <puk, pont-> all, every, whole -- ALL : <puk> all, every, whole -- ALL : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- ALSO : <pe> also -- ALSO : <penu> also; even, in fact -- ALSO : <śkaṃ> and, also -- ALSO : <śkaṃ> and, also, and also -- ALWAYS : <skam> always -- AMONG : <ywārckā (ywārśkā)> between, among, in the middle of -- ANXIETY : <praski> anxiety, dread -- ANY : <saṃ> some, any -- ANYWAY : <nu> now, even, anyway -- ARM : <poke> arm -- ART : <amok> art, skill -- ARTISAN : <amokäts> artist, artisan -- ARTIST : <amokäts> artist, artisan -- ARTISTIC : <amokṣi> artistic -- ASSURANCE : <mñe> certitude, assurance (?) -- ATTAIN : <kälp-> acquire, attain -- ATTAIN : <kälp-> attain -- ATTAIN : <kälp> attain -- ATTAIN : <yom-> attain -- AWAY : <lo> away -- AWAY : <lyā-> wipe away -- AWFUL : <empele> awful -- BALADVIPA : <Baladvip> Baladvipa (name of an island) -- BARRIER : <pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)> barrier, opposing part; the opposite -- BE : <nas-> be -- BE : <ṣ-> be -- BE : <tāk-> be -- BEAUTY : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- BECAUSE : <kuyalte> because, for -- BEGET : <täm-> beget, produce -- BEGINNING : <cwal> beginning (?) -- BEND : <näm-> bow, bend -- BETWEEN : <ywārckā (ywārśkā)> between, among, in the middle of -- BEYOND : <kätk-> go beyond, exceed -- BEYOND : <pät> over, beyond (?) -- BIG : <śāwe> (only plural) big -- BIG : <śāwe> (pl. forms only) big -- BIRTH : <saṃsār> cycle of birth -- BLADE : <pält> blade, leaf -- BLAME : <nākäm> blame -- BODHISATTVA : <Sarvārtʰasiddʰe> Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva -- BODHISATTVA : <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- BODHISATTVA : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- BOW : <nam> bow, obeisance -- BOW : <näm-> bow, bend -- BUDDHA : <Kanakamuni> Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <Kāśyap> Kasyap, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <Krakasundi> Krakasundi, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <Śikʰi> Shikhin, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <Vipaśyi> Vipasyin, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <Viśvabʰū> Visvabhu, name of a Buddha -- BUDDHA : <ptāñkät (pättāñkät)> Buddha(lord) -- BUDDHA-DIGNITY : <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-dignity -- BUDDHA-LORDSHIP : <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity -- BUDDHA-LORDSHIP : <puttiśparṣi> relating to Buddha-lordship -- BULL : <kayurṣ> bull -- BY : <oṣeñi> by night -- BY : <tämyo> by this, from this, therefore -- BY : <ykoṃ> by day -- CAMPAIGN : <sārtʰ> caravan, campaign, troop -- CAPABLE : <yāt-> be able, be capable -- CARAVAN : <sārtʰ> caravan, campaign, troop -- CATTLE : <śemäl> cattle, livestock -- CAUS. : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- CERTAINLY : <ṣakk> certainly -- CERTITUDE : <mñe> certitude, assurance (?) -- CHAFF : <psäl> chaff -- CLOTHE : <wäs-> clothe -- COALESCE : <ritw-> coalesce -- COME : <käm-> come -- COME : <pyutk-> make come into being, produce -- COMMERCE : <kuryar> commerce -- COMPASSIONATE : <kāruṇik> compassionate, merciful -- COMPLETE : <ypic> full, complete -- COMPOSED : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- CONFIDENTLY : <spānte> confidently -- CONQUER : <yuk-> conquer, overcome -- CONTROL : <akälyme> under the control of -- COTTON : <kappāñ> (pl.) cotton plant (?) -- COVER : <räk-> cover oneself, be covered -- COVERED : <räk-> cover oneself, be covered -- CREATURE : <wras(om)> (living) creature, man -- CRYSTAL : <speṣi> rock-crystalline, of rock crystal -- CUT : <kärṣt-> cut off -- CYCLE : <saṃsār> cycle of birth -- DANGER : <ñātse> hardship, danger -- DAY : <koṃ> day, sun -- DAY : <ykoṃ> by day -- DECORATION : <yetwe> jewelry, decoration -- DECREASE : <wik-> decrease -- DEMON : <yakäṣ> (type of) demon -- DESCEND : <kārp-> step down to, descend -- DESIRE : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- DESPICABLE : <appärmāt> despicable -- DESTROY : <näk-> perish, destroy -- DIE : <käs-> expire, die -- DIE : <wäl-> die -- DIGNITY : <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity -- DIRECTION : <kälyme> direction, path, path to heaven -- DITCH : <yṣaṃ> ditch, moat -- DOMAIN : <niṣpal> domain, holdings -- DOWN : <kārp-> step down to, descend -- DREAD : <praski> anxiety, dread -- EARLIER : <neṣ> earlier, prior -- EARTH : <tkaṃ> earth -- EAT : <śu-, śwā-> eat -- EIGHT : <okät> eight -- EMPHASIZING : <ats> (emphasizing particle), even, indeed -- EMPHATIC : <-k> (emphatic particle), indeed, even -- END : <āral> end (?) -- ENEMY : <yäslu> enemy -- ENERGETIC : <tsraṣi> energetic -- ENERGETIC : <wärṣṣälts> strong, energetic -- ENERGY : <tsraṣṣune> energy -- ENJOY : <wärp-> enjoy -- ESTEEM : <ynāñmune> esteem -- EVEN : <-k> (emphatic particle), indeed, even -- EVEN : <ats> (emphasizing particle), even, indeed -- EVEN : <nu> now, even, anyway -- EVEN : <penu> also; even, in fact -- EVERY : <puk, pont-> all, every, whole -- EVERY : <puk> all, every, whole -- EVIL : <omäskeṃ> evil -- EXCEED : <kätk-> go beyond, exceed -- EXCELLENT : <pruccamo> excellent, superior -- EXPIRE : <käs-> expire, die -- FACT : <penu> also; even, in fact -- FAME : <klyu> fame -- FAR : <kospreṃ> how much?, how far? -- FATHER : <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- FEW : <tsru> few, small -- FIFTH : <pänt> fifth -- FINALLY : <toriṃ> finally -- FIRE : <por> fire -- FIVE : <päñ> five -- FLATTER : <pot-> flatter -- FLATTERY : <poto> flattery, obeisance -- FOREGOES : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- FORMS : <śāwe> (pl. forms only) big -- FOUR : <śtwar> four -- FOURTH : <śtärt> fourth -- FRIEND : <ort> friend (?) -- FRIENDSHIP : <ortune> friendship -- FULL : <ypic> full, complete -- GARMENT : <wsāl> garment -- GATHER : <krop-> gather -- GENITIVE : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- GIFT : <el> gift -- GIVE : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- GIVE : <wäs-> give -- GLOW : <sälp-> glow -- GO : <i-> go -- GO : <kälk-> go -- GO : <kätk-> go beyond, exceed -- GOD : <ñkät> god -- GODLY : <ñäkci> godly, heavenly -- GOOD : <kāsu> good -- GROW : <tsäm-> grow -- GUARD : <pās-> guard -- HARD : <māski> hard -- HARDSHIP : <ñātse> hardship, danger -- HARM : <kāryap> harm -- HE : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it -- HE : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it, they -- HEAVEN : <kälyme> direction, path, path to heaven -- HEAVENLY : <ñäkci> godly, heavenly -- HELP : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- HER : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- HERE : <säs, sās, täṣ> this, this here -- HIS : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- HOLDINGS : <niṣpal> domain, holdings -- HOUSE : <waṣt> house -- HOW : <kospreṃ> how much?, how far? -- HUMAN : <wrasom> living being, human, man -- IF : <kuprene> when, if -- INDEED : <-k> (emphatic particle), indeed, even -- INDEED : <ats> (emphasizing particle), even, indeed -- INDEFINITE : <-ne> (indefinite marker), (relative marker) -- INTO : <pyutk-> make come into being, produce -- ISLAND : <Baladvip> Baladvipa (name of an island) -- ISLAND : <dvip> island -- ISLAND : <praṅk> island -- IT : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it -- IT : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it, they -- ITS : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- JAMBUDVIPA : <Jambudvip> Jambudvipa -- JEWEL : <ñemi> jewel -- JEWEL : <wmār> jewel, pearl -- JEWELRY : <yetwe> jewelry, decoration -- JEWELS : <ñemiṣi> related to jewels, of jewels -- JOY : <kācke> joy -- KANAKAMUNI : <Kanakamuni> Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha -- KASYAP : <Kāśyap> Kasyap, name of a Buddha -- KING : <Sāgare> Sagara (name of a king) -- KING : <lāñci> kingly, of a king -- KING : <wäl> king -- KINGLY : <lāñci> kingly, of a king -- KNOW : <knā-> know -- KRAKASUNDI : <Krakasundi> Krakasundi, name of a Buddha -- LAND : <ype> land -- LATER : <särki> thereupon, later -- LAY : <tā-> set, lay -- LEAF : <pält> blade, leaf -- LEAVE : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- LEFT : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- LIFE : <śol> life -- LIKE : <oki> like, as -- LIVESTOCK : <śemäl> cattle, livestock -- LIVING : <wras(om)> (living) creature, man -- LIVING : <wrasom> living being, human, man -- LOCATED : <mäsk-> be located, be -- LOCATED : <spārtw-> turn (intrans.), be located -- LOCATION : <lame> place, location -- LORD : <ptāñkät (pättāñkät)> Buddha(lord) -- LOTUS : <oppal> lotus -- MAJESTY : <puttiśparäṃ> Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity -- MAKE : <pyutk-> make come into being, produce -- MAKE : <yām-> make -- MAKE : <yām> make -- MAN : <wras(om)> (living) creature, man -- MAN : <wrasom> living being, human, man -- MANIFESTLY : <pākär> overtly, manifestly, visibly -- MANNER : <wkäṃ> manner, type -- MARKER : <-ne> (indefinite marker), (relative marker) -- MATTER : <wram> thing, matter -- MEASURE : <yärm> measure -- MERCIFUL : <kāruṇik> compassionate, merciful -- METRICAL : <Śuriṣin> (name of a type of metrical verse) -- METRICAL : <kuma...> ... (name of a type of metrical verse) -- MIDDLE : <ywārckā (ywārśkā)> between, among, in the middle of -- MILE : <kursär> mile, vehicle -- MOAT : <yṣaṃ> ditch, moat -- MONSTER : <rākṣats> (type of) monster -- MOREOVER : <śkā> still, yet, moreover -- MUCH : <kosne> as, as much (as), as often (as) -- MUCH : <kospreṃ> how much?, how far? -- MUCH : <māk> much -- MUCH : <täpreṃ> so (much) -- MUD : <lyom> mud -- MY : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- NAME : <Baladvip> Baladvipa (name of an island) -- NAME : <Kanakamuni> Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <Kāśyap> Kasyap, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <Krakasundi> Krakasundi, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <Sarvārtʰasiddʰe> Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva -- NAME : <Sāgare> Sagara (name of a king) -- NAME : <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- NAME : <Śikʰi> Shikhin, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <Śilpavāṃ> Shilpavant (name of a prince) -- NAME : <Śuriṣin> (name of a type of metrical verse) -- NAME : <Vipaśyi> Vipasyin, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <Viśvabʰū> Visvabhu, name of a Buddha -- NAME : <kuma...> ... (name of a type of metrical verse) -- NAME : <ñom> name -- NECK : <kñuk> neck -- NET : <sopi> net -- NIGHT : <oṣeñi> by night -- NINE : <ñu> nine -- NIRVANA : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- NO : <mar> no, not -- NO : <mā> no, not -- NON-BEAUTY : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- NOT : <mar> no, not -- NOT : <mā> no, not -- NOVICE : <ṣāmner> novice -- NOW : <nu> now, even, anyway -- NUMBERS : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- OBEISANCE : <nam> bow, obeisance -- OBEISANCE : <poto> flattery, obeisance -- OCEAN : <sāmudtär> ocean -- OFF : <kärṣt-> cut off -- OFTEN : <kosne> as, as much (as), as often (as) -- OLD : <mok> old -- ONE : <ākälṣäl> (one) to be taught, student -- ONE : <sas, säṃ> one -- ONESELF : <räk-> cover oneself, be covered -- ONLY : <śāwe> (only plural) big -- ONLY : <śāwe> (pl. forms only) big -- ONLY : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- OPINION : <pältsäk> thought, opinion -- OPPOSING : <pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)> barrier, opposing part; the opposite -- OPPOSITE : <pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)> barrier, opposing part; the opposite -- OR : <pat> or -- OTHER : <ālak> other -- OTHERS : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- OVER : <āsuk> over -- OVER : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- OVER : <pät> over, beyond (?) -- OVER : <śu> over -- OVERCOME : <yuk-> conquer, overcome -- OVERTLY : <pākär> overtly, manifestly, visibly -- OWN : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- PART : <pāk> part -- PART : <pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)> barrier, opposing part; the opposite -- PARTICLE : <-k> (emphatic particle), indeed, even -- PARTICLE : <ats> (emphasizing particle), even, indeed -- PATH : <kälyme> direction, path, path to heaven -- PEARL : <wmār> jewel, pearl -- PERFORM : <wles-> accomplish, perform -- PERFORM : <wles-> perform -- PERFORM : <wles> perform -- PERISH : <näk-> perish, destroy -- PERSONS : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- PERSONS : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- PERTAINING : <-puklyi> yearly, pertaining to the year -- PLACE : <lame> place, location -- PLANT : <kappāñ> (pl.) cotton plant (?) -- PLURAL : <śāwe> (only plural) big -- POSSESSION : <akäṃtsune> possession -- POVERTY : <ekrorñe> poverty -- POWERFUL : <tampewāts> powerful -- PRAISE : <āṣānik> worthy (of praise) -- PRECIOUS : <cintāmaṇi> 'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone) -- PRINCE : <Śilpavāṃ> Shilpavant (name of a prince) -- PRIOR : <neṣ> earlier, prior -- PRODUCE : <pyutk-> make come into being, produce -- PRODUCE : <täm-> beget, produce -- PRONOMINAL : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- PROTECTION : <waste> protection -- QUICKLY : <ymār> quickly -- READY : <ārwar> ready -- REFLEXIVE : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- RELATED : <ñemiṣi> related to jewels, of jewels -- RELATING : <puttiśparṣi> relating to Buddha-lordship -- RELATION : <ṣñaṣṣe> relation, relative -- RELATIVE : <-ne> (indefinite marker), (relative marker) -- RELATIVE : <ṣñaṣṣe> relation, relative -- REMAIN : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- REVERENCE : <yärk> reverence -- RICE : <klu> rice -- RISE : <pärko> advantage, rise -- ROAR : <nu-> roar -- ROCK : <speṣi> rock-crystalline, of rock crystal -- ROCK-CRYSTALLINE : <speṣi> rock-crystalline, of rock crystal -- ROOT : <tsmār> root -- SAGARA : <Sāgare> Sagara (name of a king) -- SAINT : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- SAME : <sam> same (as) -- SARVARTHASIDDHA : <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- SARVATHASIDDHE : <Sarvārtʰasiddʰe> Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva -- SAY : <träṅk-> say -- SAY : <weñ-> say -- SECOND : <wät> second -- SEE : <pälk-> see -- SEIZE : <ents-> seize -- SERPENT : <ārṣal> serpent -- SERPENT : <nāk> serpent -- SERVICE : <wles> service, work, action -- SERVICE : <wles> service, work, activity -- SET : <tā-> set, lay -- SEVEN : <ṣpät> seven -- SHE : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it -- SHE : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it, they -- SHIKHIN : <Śikʰi> Shikhin, name of a Buddha -- SHILPAVANT : <Śilpavāṃ> Shilpavant (name of a prince) -- SHINE : <pälk-> shine -- SHIP : <olyi> ship -- SIDDHARTHA : <Siddʰārtʰe> Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha -- SIT : <läm-> sit -- SIX : <ṣäk> six -- SIXTH : <ṣkäṣt> sixth -- SKILL : <amok> art, skill -- SLOTH : <ālāsune> sloth -- SLOTHFUL : <ālās> slothful -- SMALL : <tsru> few, small -- SO : <mäṃtne (mätne)> as, so as, so as to -- SO : <taṃne> so -- SO : <tämne> so, thus -- SO : <täpreṃ> so (much) -- SOME : <saṃ> some, any -- SON : <se> son -- SPARE : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- SPHERES : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- SPREAD : <sätk-> spread -- STEP : <kārp-> step down to, descend -- STILL : <śkā> still, yet, moreover -- STONE : <cintāmaṇi> 'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone) -- STRONG : <wärṣṣälts> strong, energetic -- STUDENT : <ākälṣäl> (one) to be taught, student -- SUFFIX : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- SUN : <koṃ> day, sun -- SUPERIOR : <pruccamo> excellent, superior -- TAUGHT : <ākälṣäl> (one) to be taught, student -- TEACHER : <käṣṣi> teacher -- TEN : <śäk> ten -- TEN : <tmāṃ> ten thousand -- THEIR : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) -- THEM : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- THEN : <tmäṣ> thereupon, then -- THEREFORE : <tämyo> by this, from this, therefore -- THEREUPON : <särki> thereupon, later -- THEREUPON : <tmäṣ> thereupon, then -- THEY : <säm, sām, täm> the; he, she, it, they -- THIEF : <lyäk> thief -- THING : <wram> thing, matter -- THIRD : <trit> third -- THIS : <säs, sās, täṣ> this, this here -- THIS : <tämyo> by this, from this, therefore -- THOUGHT : <pältsäk> thought, opinion -- THOUSAND : <tmāṃ> ten thousand -- THOUSAND : <wälts> thousand -- THREAD : <kluṃts> thread -- THREE : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- THREE : <tre, tri> three -- THUS : <tämne> so, thus -- TIME : <praṣt> time -- TOGETHER : <śla> (together) with -- TROOP : <sārtʰ> caravan, campaign, troop -- TURN : <spārtw-> turn (intrans.), be located -- TWO : <wu, we> two -- TYPE : <Śuriṣin> (name of a type of metrical verse) -- TYPE : <cintāmaṇi> 'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone) -- TYPE : <kuma...> ... (name of a type of metrical verse) -- TYPE : <rākṣats> (type of) monster -- TYPE : <wkäṃ> manner, type -- TYPE : <yakäṣ> (type of) demon -- UNDER : <akälyme> under the control of -- UP : <lip-> remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare -- US : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- VEHICLE : <kursär> mile, vehicle -- VERSE : <Śuriṣin> (name of a type of metrical verse) -- VERSE : <kuma...> ... (name of a type of metrical verse) -- VIPASYIN : <Vipaśyi> Vipasyin, name of a Buddha -- VISIBLY : <pākär> overtly, manifestly, visibly -- VISVABHU : <Viśvabʰū> Visvabhu, name of a Buddha -- WATER : <wär> water -- WHEN : <kuprene> when, if -- WHICH : <kusne> which -- WHO : <bodʰisattu> bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others -- WHOLE : <puk, pont-> all, every, whole -- WHOLE : <puk> all, every, whole -- WIPE : <lyā-> wipe away -- WISH-JEWEL : <cintāmaṇi> 'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone) -- WISH-TREE : <kalpavṛkäṣ> "wish-tree" -- WITHOUT : <sne> without -- WORK : <wles> service, work, action -- WORK : <wles> service, work, activity -- WORLD : <ārkiśoṣi> world -- WORLD : <traidʰātuk> the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty) -- WORTHY : <āṣāṃ> worthy -- WORTHY : <āṣānik> worthy (of praise) -- YEAR : <-puklyi> yearly, pertaining to the year -- YEAR : <pukäl> year -- YEARLY : <-puklyi> yearly, pertaining to the year -- YET : <śkā> still, yet, moreover -- YOU : <-m, -äm> (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them -- YOUR : <ṣñi> (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own) --