Indo-European Lexicon

Old Icelandic Reflex Index

Below we list 744 unique Old Icelandic reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old Irish or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

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Old Icelandic reflex index
Reflex Etyma
ǣtr ed-
þána tā-
þá tā-
þefjað tep-
þefja 2. tap- , tep-
þefr tep-
þekja 1. (s)teg-
þengill 2. tenk-
þenja 1. ten-
þexla tek̑þ-
þeyja tā-
þeyr tā-
æfi aiu̯-
œgishjālmr agh-
œgja agh-
þiþinn tā-
þíða tā-
þíðr tā-
þiðna tā-
þjōðann tēu-
þjóð tēu-
ældri 2. al-
ællri 2. al-
øngd ang̑h-
øngja ang̑h-
øngr ang̑h-
øngva ang̑h-
þóf 2. tap-
þola 1. tel-
þorn 7. (s)ter-n-
þræll trāgh-
þrøngva 1. trenk-
þrár 3. ter-
þröng 1. trenk-
þryngva 1. trenk-
ætr ed-
þvál 2. tu̯ak-
þváttr 2. tu̯ak-
ævi aiu̯-
øx ag(e)sī
þykkr tegu-
þyrnir 7. (s)ter-n-
æ aiu̯-
āss ansu-
ātt-rœðr 1. ar-
ātt ēik-
āt ed-
ā- 4. an-
af-āt ed-
afar- apo-
afr apo-
af apo-
agi agh-
aka ag̑-
akrs ag̑ro-s
ala 2. al-
aldinn 2. al-
ald-rœðr 1. ar-
aldr 2. al-
ambātt ag̑-
anda 3. an(ə)-
andi 3. an(ə)-
and- ant-s
angr ang̑h-
aptr apo-
aska ā̆s-
a-troð 3. der-
at 1. ad-
auka au̯eg-
auk 4. au-
Aunmundr 7. au̯-
aur-falr apo-
aur- apo-
avar- apo-
ax ag(e)sī , 2. ak̑-
bøkr bhāgó-s
bœr bheu-
bāl 1. bhel-
baldinn 3. bhel-
Baldr 3. bhel-
ballr 3. bhel-
baðmr bheu-
bað bhē-
barmr 1. bher-
barð bhardhā , bhardhā
barr bhares- , bhares-
bauta 1. bhā̆u-
beiða 1. bheidh-
beiskr bheid-
belgja bhelg̑h-
belgr bhelg̑h-
bella 3. bhel-
benda 1. bhā- , bhendh- , bhendh-
bendi bhendh-
beni bhen-
ben bhen-
bera 1. bher-
berg bhereg̑h-
Beyla 2. b(e)u-
beysta 1. bhā̆u-
bīða 1. bheidh-
bīta bheid-
binda bhendh-
biðja 2. bhedh-
birti bherəg̑-
bitr bheid-
bjarga bherg̑h-
bjarg bhereg̑h-
bjarkan bherəg̑-
bjartr bherəg̑-
bjōða bheudh-
bjǫrk bherəg̑-
bjǫrn 5. bher-
bjórr 5. bher-
blǣr 3. bhel-
blār 3. bhel-
blāsa 3. bhel-
blāstr 3. bhel-
blanda bhlendh-
blauþr 2. bhlēu-
blautr 2. bhlēu-
blesi 1. bhel-
blīðr 1. bhlē̆i-
blinda bhlendh-
blindr bhlendh-
blōð-drefjar dhrebh-
blōð 4. bhel-
blōta 3. bhel-
blōt-goð 3. bhel-
blōt 3. bhel-
blunda bhlendh-
blundr bhlendh-
blys 1. bhlēu-
bōk-stafr bhāgó-s
bōk bhāgó-s , bhāgó-s
bōla 2. b(e)u-
bǫllr 3. bhel-
ból bheu-
bōl bheu-
böl bheleu-
bǫrkr 2. bhreg̑-
bǫrr bheu-
bokkr bhū̆g̑o-s
bolginn bhelg̑h-
boli 3. bhel-
bora 3. bher-
borð bheredh-
borr 3. bher-
brǣða 2. bher-
brādna 2. bher-
bragr bhlagh-men-
braigd 1. bhreg̑-
brakan 1. bhreg̑-
brak 1. bhreg̑-
brandr bh(e)reu-
brasað bh(e)reu-
brasa bh(e)reu-
brattr bhren-
brauð bh(e)reu-
brekka bhren-
brenna bh(e)reu-
brinna bh(e)reu-
briōta 1. bhrē̆u-
brjá bherək̑-
brōðir bhrā́ter-
broð bh(e)reu-
brúnn 5. bher-
brugga bh(e)reu-
brundr bh(e)reu-
bruni bh(e)reu-
brunnr bh(e)reu-
*bryggja bh(e)reu-
būa bheu-
būð bheu-
būr bheu-
bū bheu-
bukkr bhū̆g̑o-s
bunki bheng̑h-
burr 1. bher-
burst bhares-
bȳr bheu-
byggva bheu-
bygg bheu-
døgn ā̆g̑her-
døgr ā̆g̑her-
døkkva dhem-
dāð 2. dhē-
dārvi- deru-
dási 3. dhē-
dagr ā̆g̑her-
dalkr dhelg-
dasaðr 3. dhē-
dasast 3. dhē-
daufr 4. dheu-
daunn 4. dheu-
dauði 2. dheu-
dauðr 2. dheu-
Dellingr 2. dhel-
dengja 3. dhen-
deyfþ 4. dheu-
deyfa 4. dheu-
deyja 2. dheu-
deyða 2. dheu-
dīki dhēig-
dīk dhēig-
digr dheig̑h-
digull dheig̑h-
dilkr dhē(i)-
dimma dhem-
dimmr dhem-
dǫgg 1. dheu-
dōttir dhug(h)əter-
dofinn 4. dheu-
dolg dhelgh-
drafna dhrebh-
draf dhrebh-
draugr 2. dhreugh-
draumr 2. dhreugh-
drīfa dhreibh-
drīf dhreibh-
drift dhreibh-
drit 5. dher-
drōttinn 2. dher- , tēu-
drōtt 2. dher-
drottning 2. dher-
drȳgja 2. dhreugh-
dryn-hraun 3. dher-
drynja 3. dher-
dvalað 4. dheu-
dvala 4. dheu-
dvīna 2. dheu-
dȳja 4. dheu-
dyrr dhu̯ē̆r-
efa 3. e-
ef 3. e-
egg 2. ak̑-
ein-dagi ā̆g̑her-
eirð 2. ais-
eir ai̯os- , 2. ais-
eiskra aisk-
ei aiu̯-
ek eg̑-
eld-stō stā-
ellar 1. al-
ella 1. al-
elligar 1. al-
elli 2. al-
ellor 1. al-
ellri 2. al-
embætta ag̑-
embætti ag̑-
enda-lauss ant-s
endir ant-s
endi ant-s
endr ant-s
enni ant-s
enn ant-s
ern 3. er-
eta ed-
etja ed-
eygja ok-
fæla 1. pel-
fæling 1. pel-
fall phō̆l-
faðmr 1. pet-
farmr 2b. per-
farri 2d. per-
fella phō̆l-
fell peli-s-
felms-fullr 1. pel-
felmtr 1. pel-
ferja 2b. per-
fīfrildi 1. pel-
fimr pei-m(i)-
fjall 3b. pel-
fjōrir-tiger ketu̯er-
fjōrirtiger dek̑m̥
fjōrtān dek̑m̥ , ketu̯er-
flá plēk̑-
flakna plēk̑-
flaska plē-
flatr plā̆t-
flóa 7. pel-
flói pleu-
flóna 7. pel-
fóðr pā-
fōt-borð bheredh-
frændi prāi-
fræ 2d. per-
frakkr preg-
frétt 4. perk̑-
fríða prāi-
friða prāi-
friðill prāi-
frjáls prāi-
frjá prāi-
frjóa 2d. per-
frjó-ligr 2d. per-
frjór 2d. per-
frjó-samr 2d. per-
frjó 2d. per-
fúrr peu̯ōr
fylgsni 3b. pel-
gæfa ghabh-
gæfr ghabh-
gœl-igr ghoilo-s
gás g̑han-s-
gāta ghend-
gātt g̑hengh-
gá ghou̯(ē)-
gā 1. g̑hē- , g̑hengh-
gafl ghebh-el-
ganga g̑hengh-
gangr g̑hengh-
garn 5. g̑her-
gaurr ghou-ro-s
geiga 2. g̑hē-
geigr 2. g̑hē-
geil-igr ghoilo-s
geiska-fullr gheis-
gelda 2. g̑hel-
geldr 2. g̑hel-
gera gher-
geta ghend- , ghend-
geyma ghou̯(ē)-
geymdir ghou̯(ē)-
geysa 1. g̑heu-
gīna 2. g̑hē-
gīsl gheidh-
gil-ker ghoilo-s
gjā 2. g̑hē-
gjǫf ghabh-
gjǫrð g̑herdh-
glæa 1. g̑hel-
glámr 1. g̑hel-
glam ghleu-
glaðr 1. g̑hel-
glaumr ghleu-
gleyma ghleu-
glīkr 2. lē̆ig-
glit 1. g̑hel-
gljá 1. g̑hel-
glóa 1. g̑hel-
glóð 1. g̑hel-
glymja ghleu-
glymr ghleu-
gnœgja enek̑-
gnaga ghen-
gnastan ghen-
gnístan ghen-
gnísta ghen-
gníst ghen-
gniða ghen-
gnōgr enek̑-
gnúa ghen-
görn 5. g̑her-
græfr 2. ghrebh-
grāðr 1. g̑her-
grāðugr 1. g̑her-
gramir 2. ghrem-
gramr 2. ghrem-
grandi ghren-
granna 2. erə-
granni 2. erə-
grautr 2. ghrēu-
gremja 2. ghrem-
grimmr 2. ghrem-
grjōt 2. ghrēu-
grǫf 2. ghrebh-
gróna ghrē-
grǫn 3. gher-
gróði ghrē-
gróðr ghrē-
grufla 1. ghrebh- , 2. ghrebh-
grunnr ghren- , ghren-
grunn ghren- , ghren-
gulr 1. g̑hel-
guma ghou̯(ē)-
gunnr 2. ghen(-ə)-
Gymir g̑hðem-
gyrða g̑herdh-
gyrðill g̑herdh-
hœfa kap-
hæli 4. k̑el-
hæll 2. k̑ā̆k-
hætta k̑enk- , k̑enk-
hár 2. k̑ā̆k- , 2. keu-
hāss 3. kā̆i-
hafr kapro-
haft kap-
hag-stœðr 3. stel-
hald 5. kel-
halfa 1. (s)kel-
halfr 1. (s)kel-
hamast 3. k̑em-
hams 3. k̑em-
hanga k̑enk- , k̑enk-
harpa (s)kerb(h)-
hastarliga k̑ēi-bh-
hastarligr k̑ēi-bh-
hatr k̑ād-
hauk-staldr 3. stel-
heiðr (s)kāi- , (s)kāi-
heið (s)kāi-
heita 3. kā̆i-
heitr 3. kā̆i-
hengja k̑enk-
her-baldr 3. bhel-
herða 3. kar-
himinn 3. k̑em-
hirðir k̑erdho-
hiti 3. kā̆i-
hjala 6. kel-
hjalmr 4. k̑el-
hjarni 1. k̑er-
hjarsi 1. k̑er-
hjarta k̑ered-
hjól 1. kel-
hjörtr 1. k̑er-
hler 1. k̑leu-
Hlið-skjálf 1. (s)kel-
hlust 1. k̑leu-
hlyða 1. k̑leu-
hófr kā̆pho-
hōf kap-
höð- k̑at-
hörund 4. (s)ker-
hodd 2. (s)keu-
horn 1. k̑er-
hosti kās-
hrár 1. kreu-
hrein-hjartaðr k̑ered- , 4. (s)ker-
hreinn 4. (s)ker-
hreðr 4. (s)ker-
hrjósa 1. kreu-
hrúðr 1. kreu-
hūð 2. (s)keu-
hug-stœðr 3. stel-
hulda 4. k̑el-
hunang kenəkó-
hund-rað 1. ar-
hvalr (s)kalo-s
hvat ko-
hvél 1. kel-
hvé ko-
hverr 2. ker-
hvetja kē̆d-
hylja 4. k̑el-
hylr kau-l-
1. en
if 3. e-
inni 1. en
inri 1. en
ið- eti
jarkna-steinn ar(e)-g̑-
jar-tegn ar(e)-g̑-
jōr ek̑u̯o-s
kārna g̑ā̆r-
kalda 3. gel(ə)-
kaldr 3. gel(ə)-
kalfi 1. gel-
kalfr 1. gel-
kambr g̑embh-
karl g̑er-
kelda 3. gel(ə)-
kinn 2. g̑enu-
kjaptr g̑ep(h)-
kjöptr g̑ep(h)-
kjōsa g̑eus-
klāpr 1. gel-
klaki 3. gel(ə)-
klé 1. gel-
kleif 1. gel-
klettr 1. gel-
klif 1. gel-
klǫpp 1. gel-
knē-beðr 2. bhedh-
knē 1. g̑enu-
kneikja gen-
knýta gen-
knytja gen-
kólna 3. gel(ə)-
kǫr g̑ā̆r-
koddi 3. gei̯-
kofi gēu-
konungr 1. g̑en-
kor g̑eus-
kosta g̑eus-
kostr g̑eus-
krœkja 3. ger-
krá 3. ger-
kremja 1. ger-
kringja 3. ger-
kringr 3. ger-
kring 3. ger-
krota gerebh-
kryppil 3. ger-
kūþr 2. g̑en-
kúfóttr gēu-
kuikr 3. gei̯-
kuldi 3. gel(ə)-
kul 3. gel(ə)-
kunna 2. g̑en-
kunnr 2. g̑en-
kurfr gerebh-
kvæna gē̆nā
kvæn gē̆nā
kvān gē̆nā
kveisa geid(h)-
kveld 1. gel-
kveðja 2. get-
kvern 2. ger-
kviðr 3. gei̯- , 2. get-
kviðugr 3. gei̯-
kvǫl 1. gel-
kylr 3. gel(ə)-
kyn 1. g̑en-
lang-ǣr aiu̯-
lax lak̑-
leika 3. leig-
ljōmi leuk-
ljúfr leubh-
lok 1. leug-
mækir medhi-
māl-dagi ā̆g̑her-
malmr 1. mel-
malr molko-
mann-kyn 1. g̑en- , manu-s
marr marko-
mēr 1. me-
mek 1. me-
Mīmir (s)mer-
mik 1. me-
mjaltir mē̆lg̑-
mjaltr mē̆lg̑-
mjǫlk mē̆lg̑-
Mjǫllnir 2. meldh-
molka mē̆lg̑-
Myrk-viðr 2. mer- , u̯idhu-
myrkvi 2. mer-
nœgja enek̑-
nāl (s)nē-
nafli 1. enebh-
naðra nē-tr-
naðr nē-tr-
niðrað 1. en
niðra 1. en
nōgr enek̑-
ōast agh-
ǫgn 2. ak̑-
ōkr au̯eg-
ǫld 2. al-
ǫnd anət-
ǫngr ang̑h-
ǫnn es-en-
ǫrvar arqu-
ǫr arqu-
ǫss ansu-
of-āt ed- , ed-
of upo
ok 4. au-
onð 3. an(ə)-
ðar 1. to-
ðat 1. to-
røkja 2. rē̆k-
røkkr regos-
rann 2. erə-
rīm 1. ar-
rinna 3. er-
rista 1. rei-
rǫk 2. rē̆k-
runi 3. er-
sœgr u̯ā̆gh-
sæði 2. sē(i)-
sáð 2. sē(i)-
sá 2. sē(i)-
sam-kvæðr 2. get-
segl 2. sē̆k-
selja 3. sel-
sigr seg̑h-
skafa 2. (s)kē̆p-
skal 2. (s)kel-
skel 1. (s)kel-
skera 4. (s)ker-
skjǫldr 1. (s)kel-
skjōta 2. (s)keud-
skōfir 2. (s)kē̆p-
skōf 2. (s)kē̆p-
skōr 2. (s)keu-
skǫr 4. (s)ker-
skūr k̑ēu̯ero-
skugg-sjā 2. (s)keu-
skuldr 2. (s)kel-
skuld 2. (s)kel-
skulum 2. (s)kel-
skulu 2. (s)kel-
skygn 1. keu-
skyldi 2. (s)kel-
skyld 2. (s)kel-
sláttr slak-
slēttr 3. lei-
sleikja leig̑h-
slīur 3. lei-
sloðra (s)leu-
smali mēlo-
snara 2. (s)ner-
snarpr (s)nerb-
snera snēu-
snerpa (s)nerb-
snorkinn 2. (s)ner-
snūa snēu-
snūinn snēu-
snūðigr snēu-
snūðr snēu-
snugga snēu-
snyðja snēu-
sofna 1. su̯ep-
sollr 1. su̯el(-k)-
speld 1. (s)p(h)el-
spík 1. (s)p(h)ē̆i-
spjald 1. (s)p(h)el-
spjalla (s)pel-
spjall (s)pel-
spǫlr 1. (s)p(h)el-
stœða stā-
stœðr stā- , 3. stel-
stāl 3. stel-
staka 1. (s)teg- , 2. (s)teg-
staki 2. (s)teg-
stallr 3. stel-
standa stā-
staðr stā-
staup (s)teig-
stauta 1. (s)teu-
steytr 1. (s)teu-
stīfla stē̆ib(h)-
stikill (s)teig-
stirðr 7. (s)ter-n-
stjaki 2. (s)teg-
stjarna 2. stē̆r-
stōll stā-
stǫðull stā-
stōð stā-
stǫð stā-
storð 7. (s)ter-n-
strá 5. ster-
stūtr 1. (s)teu-
súga 1. seu-
súpa 1. seu-
súrr sū-ro-
sú so(s)
sumar 3. sem-
svārr 1. u̯er-
svagla u̯ā̆gh-
svefja 1. su̯ep-
svefna 1. su̯ep-
svelga 1. su̯el(-k)-
sylgr 1. su̯el(-k)-
tāg denk̑-
tār dak̑ru-
tamr demə-
tað dā
taug deuk-
taumr deuk-
teinn du̯ō(u)
teitr 1. dei-
temja demə-
teðja dā
teygja deuk-
tīund dek̑m̥
tīu dek̑m̥
tilr 2. ad-
timbra dem-
timbr dem-
tindr ed-
titra 3. der-
-tjān dek̑m̥
tjalda 3. del-
tjald 3. del-
tjara deru-
tjōa deuk-
tjón 1. der-
tjǫrn derk̑-
tǫng denk̑-
toga deuk-
tog deuk-
tolf du̯ō(u)
topt dem-
trað 3. der-
traust deru-
trē deru-
trefill 4. der-
trefr 4. der-
treðja 3. der-
tröf 4. der-
trǫð 3. der-
troða 3. der-
troð 3. der-
tros deru-
trūa deru-
trū deru-
tunga dn̥g̑hū
tuttugu du̯ō(u)
tvǣr du̯ō(u)
tvā du̯ō(u)
tveir du̯ō(u)
tvennr du̯ō(u)
tvī-faldr du̯ō(u)
tvinnr du̯ō(u)
tvis-tra du̯ō(u)
tvis-var du̯ō(u)
týnast 1. der-
týna 1. der-
týning 1. der-
tȳr 1. dei-
tygill deuk-
tyrvi deru-
tys-var du̯ō(u)
ū-borinn 1. bher-
ūhreinn 4. (s)ker-
ū-kūðr 2. g̑en-
ū-kvæntr gē̆nā
ū-kvæði 2. get-
ulfr u̯l̥kos
unz ant-s
vana 1. eu-
vangr u̯e-n-gh-
vanr 1. eu-
varp 3b. u̯er-
vaxa au̯eg-
vax u̯okso-
vefa 1. u̯ebh-
veðr u̯et-
ver-ǫld 2. al-
vetr 9. au̯(e)-
vettr 9. au̯(e)-
vexa au̯eg-
víking 4. u̯eik-
vīkva 4. u̯eik-
víl-stigr u̯ā̆i-
vindr 10. au̯(e)-
vist 2. u̯es-
vittr 9. au̯(e)-
vǫxtr au̯eg-

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