Indo-European Lexicon

Middle High German Reflex Index

Below we list 826 unique Middle High German reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old Irish or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

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Middle High German reflex index
Reflex Etyma
ābent epi
áder ēter-
āle ēlā
ās ed-
ātem ēt-mén-
ackeran ōg-
acker ag̑ro-s
ackes ag(e)sī
agene 2. ak̑-
agne 2. ak̑-
ahe akā-
ahsel ag̑-
ahse ag̑-
aht ok̑tō(u)
alb albho-
alf albho-
alles 1. al-
alp albho-
alse 1. al-
alsō 1. al-
alter 2. al-
althorn 1. k̑er-
alt 2. al-
alūn alu-
al 1. al-
ander 2. an-
ane 2. ak̑- , 4. an-
angel 2. ank-
angest ang̑h-
anke ang̑h-
anlāge legh-
an 4. an-
apfel ā̆bel-
arbeit orbho-
arche areq-
arebeit orbho-
arm 1. ar- , orbho-
arnen es-en-
arn 1. er-
ars ers-
art 4. er-
asche ā̆s-
asch *ōs
aspe apsā
axt ag(e)sī
bāre 1. bher-
bachen bhē-
bach bhog-
baden bhē-
bad bhē-
balc bhelg̑h-
bald 3. bhel-
balke 5. bhel-
balle 3. bhel-
banc bheg-
bane bhen-
bank bheg-
bannen 2. bhā-
bann 2. bhā-
bant bhendh-
ban 2. bhā- , bhen-
barre 3. bher-
bart bhardhā
bar 1. bher- , 3. bher- , bhoso-s
bat bhē-
be-huof kap-
beide ambhi
beize bheid-
beiz bheid-
belche 1. bhel-
beliben 1. leip-
benden bhendh-
bengel bheg-
bercfrit bhereg̑h- , prāi-
berchfrit bhereg̑h- , prāi-
bercvrit bhereg̑h- , prāi-
berc bhereg̑h-
bere 1. bhā- , 1. bher-
bergen bhereg̑h- , bherg̑h-
berhfride bhereg̑h- , prāi-
berht bherəg̑-
ber 1. bhā- , 5. bher-
best bhā̆d-
bete 2. bhedh-
bette 1. bhedh-
bet 1. bhedh-
bezzer bhā̆d-
bezzist bhā̆d-
bīe bhei-
bīn bhei-
bīten 1. bheidh-
bīzen bheid-
biben bhei-
biber 5. bher-
biegen 3. bheug-
bieten 2. bhedh-
bile bhei(ə)-
bil bhei(ə)-
binden bhendh-
binde bhendh-
bine bhei-
binnen 1. en
bin bhei- , bheu-
birche bherəg̑-
birke bherəg̑-
bischof spek̑-
bist bheu-
bitten 2. bhedh-
bitter bheid-
biule 2. b(e)u-
biuten bheudh-
biuwen bheu-
bizze bheid-
biz bheid-
bi ambhi
blœde 2. bhlēu-
blæjen 3. bhel-
blæwen 3. bhel-
blāsen 3. bhel-
blātere 3. bhel-
blāter 3. bhel-
blāzen bhlē-
blā bhlē-u̯o-s
black bheleg-
blanc bheleg-
blanden bhlendh-
blast 3. bhel-
blas bhles-
blatter 3. bhel-
blat 4. bhel-
blēren bhlē-
bleichen bheleg-
bleich bheleg-
blenden bhlendh-
blerren bhlē-
blīcan bheleg-
blīde 1. bhlē̆i-
blichen 1. bhlē̆i-
blint bhlendh-
blōdern 3. bhel-
blōz 2. bhlēu-
bloust 4. bhel-
blüejen 4. bhel-
blüen 4. bhel-
blunt bhlendh-
bluome 4. bhel-
bluon 4. bhel-
bluoten 3. bhel-
bluot 4. bhel- , 4. bhel-
bōne bhabhā
*böugel 3. bheug-
bōzel 1. bhā̆u-
bōzen 1. bhā̆u-
boc bhū̆g̑o-s
bodem bhudh-m(e)n
boden bhudh-m(e)n
boge 3. bheug-
bole 3. bhel-
bolle 3. bhel-
bolster bhelg̑h-
bolwerc 2. u̯erg̑-
bolz bheld-
borgen bherg̑h-
born 3. bher-
bort bheredh-
bouchen 1. bhā-
bouc 3. bheug-
boum bheu-
bouwen bheu-
bou bheu-
bræhen bhrag-
bræjen 2. bher-
brāme 1. bherem-
brāten bh(e)reu-
brāte bh(e)reu-
brāwe 1. bhrū-
brach 1. bhreg̑-
bradem 2. bher-
brahsen bherək̑-
brantweīn bh(e)reu-
brant bh(e)reu-
brasem bherək̑-
brëchen 1. bhreg̑-
brët bheredh-
brehen bherək̑-
brem 1. bherem-
brennen bh(e)reu-
bresten bhres-
brimmen 2. bherem-
bringen bhrenk-
briuwen bh(e)reu-
brōseme 2. bhreu-s-
brōsem 2. bhreu-s-
brōsme 2. bhreu-s-
brōt bh(e)reu-
brod bh(e)reu-
brūchen bhrūg-
brücke 2. bhrū-
brüejen bh(e)reu-
brüeje bh(e)reu-
brüen bh(e)reu-
brügge 2. bhrū-
brūn 5. bher-
brucke 2. bhrū-
brunne bh(e)reu-
bruoder bhrā́ter-
bruot bh(e)reu-
brust 1. bhreu-s-
būde bheu-
büenen 1. bhā-
bürde 1. bher-
bürste bhares-
bütel bheudh-
bū bheu-
bulge bhelg̑h-
bulzen bheld-
bunt bhendh-
buobe baba-
buoche bhāgó-s
buoch-stabe bhāgó-s
buoch bhāgó-s
buoc bhāg̑hú-s
buode bheu-
Buohhunna bhāgó-s
buoze bhā̆d-
buoz bhā̆d-
burc bhereg̑h-
burne bh(e)reu-
burren 1. bher-
buter gou-
buwen bheu-
dīhte 2. tenk-
dicke tegu-
dic tegu-
dol 4. dheu-
dranc 1. trenk-
drëc sk̑er-(d-)
drec 8. (s)ter-
drīes trei-
dringen 1. trenk-
drōz tr-eu-d-
drostel trozdos-
dunken 1. teng-
dunster tem(ə)-
ēre 2. ais-
ēwec aiu̯-
ēwe aiu̯-
ēwic aiu̯-
ëzzen ed-
aiu̯-
ebbe apo-
ecke 2. ak̑-
eck 2. ak̑-
edele ā̆tos
egese agh-
ege agh-
eht ok̑tō(u)
eiche 2. aig-
eich 2. aig-
eigen ēik-
einlef 1. leip- , oi-no-
einlif 1. leip- , oi-no-
eischen 1. ais-
eise agh-
eiten oid-
eiter oid-
eit 5. ai-
ei ō(u̯)i̯-om
ekeln aigh-
elbe albho-
elch 1. el-
elenboge 8. el-
ellenboge 8. el-
ellen 8. el-
elline 8. el-
elne 8. el-
eln 8. el-
ende-lōs ant-s
ende ant-s
enge ang̑h-
enkel 2. ank-
ent-rāton 1. ar-
eren ar(ə)-
erknellen gen-
ernest 3. er-
ern ar(ə)-
erwachen u̯eg̑-
esche ā̆s-
esel ers-
fager 1. pek̑-
finger penke
fride prāi-
gǣbe ghabh-
gān 1. g̑hē-
galle 1. gel- , 1. g̑hel-
ganc g̑hengh-
gangen g̑hengh-
ganzer g̑han-s-
ganze g̑han-s-
garn 5. g̑her-
garte g̑herdh-
gast ghosti-s
gatern ghedh-
gater ghedh-
gate ghedh-
gat ghed-
gazze 1. g̑hē-
gēn 1. g̑hē-
gēr g̑haiso-
gebūre bheu-
gebūr bheu-
geburt 1. bher-
ge-gate ghedh-
geilen ghoilo-s
geil ghoilo-s
geinir eno-
geist gheis-
geiz ghaido-
geleich 4. leig-
gengen g̑hengh-
geteling ghedh-
ge-telle 2. dhel-
getern ghedh-
gevēch 2. peig̑-
gewar 8. u̯er-
ge-ziuc deuk-
gīht g̑hengh-
gi-hurten 2. (s)keu-
glīten 1. g̑hel-
glimsen 1. g̑hel-
glitschen 1. g̑hel-
glitzen 1. g̑hel-
gome g̑hðem-
grāpen 1. ghrebh-
grāt 3. gher-
gram 2. ghrem-
grane 3. gher-
grans 3. gher-
grogezen gru-
gurt g̑herdh-
hǣli 4. k̑el-
habene kap-
hacken keg-
hader k̑at-
halten 5. kel-
-hart 3. kar-
hëllen 6. kel-
hechel keg-
heie (s)k(h)ai-
hemmen 1. kem-
hest k̑ēi-bh-
hetzen k̑ād-
heyst k̑ēi-bh-
hirn-bolle 3. bhel-
hiulen ul-
hose 2. (s)keu-
houbetman kap-ut
hulfter 4. k̑el-
hulst 4. k̑el-
hummen 2. kem-
hundert dek̑m̥
ie aiu̯-
irre 2. ere-s-
ite- eti
iuter ēudh-
jārzīt dā , 1. ei-
jār 1. ei-
jā 3. e-
jest i̯es-
je aiu̯-
jōlen 2. i̯ū̆
jodeln 2. i̯ū̆
junc 3. i̯eu-
kæse ku̯at(h)-
kachen ha ha!
kachezen ha ha!
kaf g̑ep(h)-
kalt 3. gel(ə)-
kambe g̑embh-
kamp g̑embh-
kapūn 2. (s)kē̆p-
kar g̑ā̆r-
këc 3. gei̯-
kël 2. gel-
kēre g̑ers-
kërne g̑er-
kërn g̑er-
kërren 2. ger-
kërvele 4. bhel-
kēr g̑ers-
këvere g̑ep(h)-
kellen 1. gel-
kennen 2. g̑en-
kerban gerebh-
kerben gerebh-
kerl g̑er-
kiden 2. get-
kiel 2. gel-
kiesen g̑eus-
kinn 2. g̑enu-
kint 1. g̑en-
kirren 2. ger-
kitel 4. (s)ker-
kittel 4. (s)ker-
kiusen g̑eus-
kiuwen g(i̯)eu-
kivel g̑ep(h)-
kleit 1. gel-
klieben gleubh-
kliuben gleubh-
kliuwel 1. gel-
klōz 1. gel-
knëten gen-
knie 1. g̑enu-
knillen gen-
knöckel gen-
knochen gen-
knoche gen-
knode gen-
knolle gen-
knopf gen-
knote gen-
knüllen gen-
knüsen gen-
knüssen gen-
kobe gēu-
koch pek-
kol g(e)u-lo-
komen gā-
kone gē̆nā
kon gē̆nā
korn g̑er-
kræjen 2. ger-
krā 2. ger-
krachen 2. ger-
kraft 3. ger-
kranech 2. ger-
krebez gerebh-
kretze 3. ger-
kriuchen 3. ger-
kropf 3. ger-
kroten greut-
krūche 3. ger-
krume 3. ger-
krump 3. ger-
kruoc 3. ger-
küche pek-
küele 3. gel(ə)-
küene 2. g̑en-
künc 1. g̑en-
künden 2. g̑en-
künec 1. g̑en-
künic 1. g̑en-
kūre g̑eus-
kūr g̑eus-
küssen ku-
kuchen pek-
kuche pek-
kumpf 2. keu-
kunnen 2. g̑en-
kunt 2. g̑en-
kuofe gēu-
kuolēn 3. gel(ə)-
kuon 2. g̑en-
kuo gou-
læge 2. lēg̑h-
lāge legh-
lanche kleng-
lanke kleng-
lant 3. lendh-
lērche 3. leig-
lederhose 2. (s)keu-
leichen 3. leig-
liederlich (s)leu-
loube leubh- , leup-
mægen 2. am-
mæjen 2. am-
māl 3. mē-
mānde mēnōt
māne mēnōt
mānt mēnōt
māt 2. mē-
magetīn maghos
maget maghos
maht magh-
marke mereg̑-
meisch mei-k̑-
meistersinger meg̑(h)- , sengh-
mengen men(ə)k-
mensch manu-s
messe smeit-
mewen 2. am-
milkh mē̆lg̑-
minnesinger 3. men- , sengh-
misse- 2. mei-t(h)-
motte 1. math-
mügen magh-
mūlber moro-
mugen magh-
muor mā-no-
nabeger 1. enebh-
negber 1. enebh-
negeber 1. enebh-
ōheim au̯o-s
ōre 2. ōus-
ōstene au̯es-
ōsten au̯es-
obese upo
oeheim au̯o-s
oesen aus-
ouch 4. au-
ouge ok-
ou 1. au-
oven auq(h)-
owe óu̯i-s
pflücken pi-lo-
pfnūsen pneu-
pfrieme ong-
quëc 3. gei̯-
quellen 1. gel-
queln 1. gel-
querch dhu̯ergh-
quetschen gedh-
quetsen gedh-
quiden 2. get-
raben 1. ker-
rade-ber 1. bher- , ret(h)-
ramm 1. ker-
ram 1. ker-
rappe 1. ker-
retich u̯(e)rād-
rigel 3. u̯er-
roum reugh-m(e)n-
rüejen 1. erə-
rube 1. ker-
ruoch 1. ker-
ruowe 2. erə-
rusch rezg-
saftec sap-
saft sap-
saf sap-
salbe selp-
schāch kþē(i)-
scharte 4. (s)ker-
schnitzel sneit-
schoz 2. (s)keud-
schuoch 2. (s)keu-
schurz 4. (s)ker-
sē sāi-
segge 2. sē̆k-
sengen senk-
singer sengh-
sinken seng-
slepfer 3. lei-
slīm 3. lei-
slīten (s)leidh-
slitzen 1. (s)kel-
sloten (s)leu-
slotern (s)leu-
slouche (s)leug̑-
slūder-affe (s)leu-
slūdern (s)leu-
slūder (s)leu-
smalz 1. mel-
smiegen 2. meug-
smouch (s)meukh-
snappen snā-
snerren pneu-
sniz sneit-
soln 2. (s)kel-
spec 3. sp(h)ē(i)-
spelte 1. (s)p(h)el-
spreckel *(s)p(h)ereg-
sprenkel *(s)p(h)ereg-
sprenzen sp(h)erd(h)-
spriezen 2. (s)p(h)er-
stall 3. stel-
stal 3. stel-
stecken (s)teig-
sterke stā-
sterzen 1. (s)ter-
stīf stē̆ib(h)-
stīge stāi-
stīje stāi-
stief 1. (s)teu-
stirke stā-
strant 5. ster-
strousel 5. ster-
stürn 1. tu̯er-
stutzen 1. (s)teu-
stutz 1. (s)teu-
sumer 3. sem-
sumpf su̯omb(h)o-s
swanken su̯eng-
swan su̯en-
sweiz 2. su̯eid-
tāpe dā
tac ā̆g̑her-
tagen ā̆g̑her-
tag ā̆g̑her-
tal 1. dhel-
tar dhers-
tat 2. dhē-
tëlben dhelbh-
techer dek̑m̥
teic dheig̑h-
telben dhelbh-
telle 1. dhel-
tenne 2. dhen-
tīch dhēig-
tief dheu-b-
tier 4. dheu-
tievel 2. gel-
tigere dheig̑h-
tiger dheig̑h-
timber dhem-
timmer dhem-
tiuvel 2. gel-
tōt 2. dheu- , 2. dheu-
tob 4. dheu-
tohter dhug(h)əter-
tol 4. dheu-
top 4. dheu-
torste dhers-
touben 4. dheu-
toufen dheu-b-
toup 4. dheu-
tou 1. dheu-
trache derk̑-
tracke derk̑-
tragen dherāgh-
traz 4. der-
trene 3. dher-
trenken dhreg̑-
tren 3. dher-
treten 3. der-
trīben dhreibh-
triffen dhrebh-
trift dhreibh-
trinken dhreg̑-
trōr dhreu-
trolle 3. der-
trol 3. der-
tropfe dhreu-
trote 3. der-
trotte 3. der-
truht 2. dher-
truosen 1. dher-
tücmen 2. dhē-
tuom 2. dhē-
tuon 2. dhē-
turen dhers-
turren dhers-
twerc dhu̯ergh-
ürochse u̯eg-
ūter ēudh-
ūz ū̆d-
unruowe 2. erə-
uover āpero-
vāhen pā̆k̑-
vālant 1. pel-
vāre 2e. per-
vār 2e. per-
vaʒ 1. pē̆d-
vadem 1. pet-
vaden 1. pet-
vahs 2. pek̑-
valden 3a. pel-
vallen phō̆l-
-valt 3a. pel-
valten 3a. pel-
vane pā̆n-
van pā̆n-
varm 2b. per-
varn 2b. per- , 2b. per-
varre 2d. per-
varzen perd-
var 2b. per- , 2d. per-
vasel 3. pes-
vasten pasto-
vast pasto-
vater pətḗ(r)
vēch 1. peig- , 2. peig̑-
vëdere 2. pet-
vëder 2. pet-
vël 3b. pel-
vërch perku-s
vërre 2a. per-
vërsen persnā
vehten 2. pek̑-
veiʒet pei̯(ə)-
veiʒt pei̯(ə)-
veiʒ pei̯(ə)-
veige 2. peig̑-
veim (s)poimno-
velt pelə-
venchel dhē(i)-
verterken 1. dher-
vertirken 1. dher-
verwepfen keu̯əp-
verzen perd-
verzern 4. der-
vesten pasto-
veste pasto-
vīant pē(i)-
vīent pē(i)-
vīnt pē(i)-
vīsen 2. peis-
vierdunc ketu̯er-
vier ketu̯er-
vihe 2. pek̑-
vile 1. peig-
vilz 2a. pel-
vil 1. pel-
vinden pent-
vinke (s)pingo-
virne 2a. per-
visch peisk-
visten 2. peis-
vist 2. peis-
viur peu̯ōr
viuwer peu̯ōr
viwer peu̯ōr
vlæen pleu-
vlæjen pleu-
vlahs plek̑-
vlëc plēk̑-
vleisch plēk̑-
vletze plā̆t-
vliegen pleu-
vliege pleu-
vliehen pleu-
vliez pleu-
vlins (s)plei-
vlius pleus-
vliuzen pleu-
vlōch blou-
vluht pleu-
vluor pelə-
vluot pleu-
vogel pleu-
vohe 1. pū̆k-
volc 1. pel-
vole pōu-
vol 1. pel- , pōu-
vorhen 2. perk̑-
vorhte 2. perg-
vorht 2. perg-
vort 2a. per-
vragen 4. perk̑-
vrëch preg-
vrëzzen ed-
vrīen prāi-
vrīgen prāi-
vrî prāi-
vriunt prāi-
vriusen preus-
vrosch preu-
vrost preus-
vruot pret-
vüelen 3a. pel-
vüeren 2b. per-
vüerer 2b. per-
vüeten pā-
vüli pōu-
vüllen 1. pel-
vūl 2. pū̆-
vünf penke
vürder 2a. per-
vür-hanc k̑enk-
vūst pn̥ksti-
vuhs 1. pū̆k-
vuln pōu-
vunf penke
vuoten pā-
vuoter pā-
vuoz 2. pē̆d-
vurch 3. perk̑-
vurt 2b. per-
vurzen perd-
wāt 5. au̯-
wacken u̯eg̑h-
wahsen au̯eg-
wall 7. u̯el-
wandern 1. u̯endh-
wanne 1. u̯āt-
warc 3e. u̯er-
ware 8. u̯er-
wazzer 9. au̯(e)-
wē-tāt 2. dhē-
wellen 7. u̯el-
wer 5. u̯er-
wetten u̯adh-
wicken u̯eg̑-
wilge 7. u̯el-
winter 9. au̯(e)-
wise 3. k̑uei-
würze u̯(e)rād-
wune 1. eu-
zāch denk̑-
zāhe denk̑-
zanger denk̑-
zeche deig̑h-
zeine du̯ō(u)
zein du̯ō(u)
zītunge dā
zīt dā
ziehen deuk-
ziestag ā̆g̑her-
zint ed-
zipfel dumb-
zipf dumb-
ziuc deuk- , deuk-
ziugen deuk-
z-öugen ok-
zornig 4. der-
z-ounen ok-
zouwen 3. deu-
zwēne du̯ō(u)
zwerch dhu̯ergh-
zwīden 2. deu-
zwirn du̯ō(u)
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