Indo-European Lexicon

Middle Low German Reflex Index

Below we list 268 unique Middle Low German reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old Irish or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

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Middle Low German reflex index
Reflex Etyma
achte agh-
alf albho-
ander 2. an-
angest ang̑h-
an 4. an-
balde 3. bhel-
bale 3. bhel-
balke 5. bhel-
bal 3. bhel-
barc 3. bher-
bard bhardhā
barm 2. bher-
baten bhā̆d-
bate bhā̆d-
be-hōf kap-
bere 1. bhā-
berme 1. bherem-
berm 2. bher-
bete bheid-
bet bheid-
bīten bheid-
bitte bheid-
bit bheid-
blādere 3. bhel-
blāsen 3. bhel-
blāw bhlē-u̯o-s
blā bhlē-u̯o-s
black bheleg-
blaken bheleg-
blank bheleg-
blarren bhlē-
blas bhles-
blat 4. bhel-
blauwe bhlē-u̯o-s
blēk bheleg-
bleine 2. bhlei-
blenden bhlendh-
bleten bhlē-
blōme 4. bhel-
blōt 4. bhel- , 2. bhlēu-
blöt 4. bhel-
bloot 2. bhlēu-
bloschen bhleu-(k-)
blosem 4. bhel-
blosen bhleu-(k-)
blossem 4. bhel-
blüsteren bhleu-
blus bhleu-(k-)
bōchsprēt bhāg̑hú-s , 2. (s)p(h)er-
bōch bhāg̑hú-s
bōde bheu-
bōm bheu-
bōt bheid-
boge 3. bheug-
bolde 3. bhel-
bolten bheld-
bolte bheld-
bone bhabhā
borch bhereg̑h-
borke 2. bhreg̑-
borne bh(e)reu-
born bh(e)reu-
bort bheredh-
bor 3. bher-
brādem 2. bher-
brak 1. bhreg̑-
brannewīn bh(e)reu-
brant bh(e)reu-
bregen mregh-m(n)o-
bret bheredh-
brink bhren-
brōien bh(e)reu-
brōt bh(e)reu-
broc 1. bhreg̑-
broke 1. bhreg̑-
bǖle 2. b(e)u-
būch bhāg̑hú-s
būgen 3. bheug-
būr bheu-
bulle 3. bhel-
but 1. bhā̆u-
degel dheig̑h-
deger dheig̑h-
dele 2. tel-
dīen dhē(i)-
diger dheig̑h-
dōf 4. dheu-
drane 3. dher-
dronen 3. dher-
drone 3. dher-
dwarch dhu̯ergh-
dwark dhu̯ergh-
dwerch dhu̯ergh-
dwer terk-
ēgelen aigh-
ēke 2. aig-
e̐chelen aigh-
egelen agh-
eichelen aigh-
eig ō(u̯)i̯-om
ei ō(u̯)i̯-om
engen ang̑h-
fimmelen pei-m(i)-
fimmeren pei-m(i)-
gadderen ghedh-
gaden ghedh-
gaderen ghedh-
gader ghedh-
galle 1. gel-
galt 2. g̑hel-
gat ghed-
gebūr bheu-
gelve ghel-
gevel ghebh-el-
gīlen ghoilo-s
gorde g̑herdh-
grint ghren-
grōien ghrē-
hacken keg-
harst kars-
hast k̑ēi-bh-
hōken kag̑o-
hol kau-l-
hulse 4. k̑el-
hump (s)kamb-
īs 2. ei-s-
ieht u̯ek-ti-
iet u̯ek-ti-
iewet u̯ek-ti-
iht u̯ek-ti-
jene eno-
kalk kaghlo-
kluwen keleu-
knīf gen-
knorre gen-
knubbe gen-
knutten gen-
kopp gēu-
külde 3. gel(ə)-
lesen les-
līk 4. leig-
māt mad-
mēgen 2. am-
mēwe 1. mū̆-
meien 2. am-
meigen 2. am-
mīgen meig̑h-
mire moru̯ī̆-
note 1. ken-
not 1. ken-
ōver āpero-
or-āte ed-
or-ēte ed-
ort ed-
ostene au̯es-
osten au̯es-
oven auq(h)-
pīl 1. peis-?
pile pi-lo-
pint bend-
prām 2a. per-
quēse geid(h)-
queden 3. gei̯-
quist gei̯ə-
raven 1. ker-
rave 1. ker-
rekenen 2. rē̆k-
ribbesper 2. rebh-
ribbe 2. rebh-
risten 1. rei-
rōke 1. ker-
rōk 1. ker-
rōme reugh-m(e)n-
rōm reugh-m(e)n-
roge 2. krek-
sakken seng-
salve selp-
sane 1. seu-
sap sap-
schaven 2. (s)kē̆p-
schelle 1. (s)kel-
scheren 4. (s)ker-
schōle 1. (s)kel-
schōve 2. (s)kē̆p-
sē sāi-
shiten skē̆i-
sinken seng-
sipen seip-
slagge slak-
slecht 3. lei-
slec leig̑h-
slicken leig̑h-
slippen 3. lei-
slipper 3. lei-
slorpen srebh-
slūpen sleub(h)-
smucken 2. meug-
smuck 2. meug-
snore snusós
snorren pneu-
sōr saus-
somer 3. sem-
spalden 1. (s)p(h)el-
speck 3. sp(h)ē(i)-
spelderen 1. (s)p(h)el-
splente (s)plei-
splinte (s)plei-
spolden 1. (s)p(h)el-
sprēt 2. (s)p(h)er-
spring sperg̑h-
stake 2. (s)teg-
stēde stā-
stekel (s)teig-
sterne 2. stē̆r-
stickel (s)teig-
stōd stā-
stōp (s)teig-
stōt stā-
stōwen stā-
stouwen stā-
stove 4. dheu-
stūwen stā-
sūke-dage ā̆g̑her-
swāren 1. u̯er-
swēre 1. u̯er-
swengen su̯eng-
swingen su̯eng-
tam demə-
tēn du̯ō(u)
tegede dek̑m̥
teke deig̑h-
telt 3. del-
temmen demə-
terren 4. der-
tīen dhē(i)-
tīke digh-
tind ed-
tinne ed-
trade 3. der-
trampen 3. der-
trappe 3. der-
treden 3. der-
trūwe deru-
twīvel du̯ō(u)
vīren 2a. per-
vīsel 1. peis-?
vlō blou-
vloe blou-
vorchte 2. perg-
*vordeck 1. (s)teg-
vordecken 1. (s)teg-
vore 3. perk̑-
vrecht ēik-
vrō 2a. per-
vrochte 2. perg-
vruchte 2. perg-
wachten u̯eg̑-
water 9. au̯(e)-
wēl 1. kel-
weddersinnes sent-
weien 10. au̯(e)-
wene u̯en-
wiggelen u̯eg̑h-
wimmel u̯eip-
Wōdan 1. u̯āt-
wolde 4. u̯el-
wone 1. eu-
wriggeln 3. u̯er-

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